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841CE

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§Byzantine Empire

Theophilos is the emperor.

Around 841, the Republic of Venice sent a fleet of 60 galleys (each carrying 200 men) to assist the Byzantines in driving the Arabs from Crotone, but it fails. During this campaign some of Al-Mu'tasim's top generals were plotting against the caliph. He uncovered this. Many of these leading commanders were arrested, some executed, before he arrived home. Al-Afshin seems not to have been involved in this, but he was detected in other intrigues and died in prison in the spring of 841. Caliph al-Mu'tasim fell sick in October, 841

§Europe

§France

June 25: Battle of Fontenay - Louis the German and Charles the Bald defeat their brother Lothair, who retreated to the south with his army.

Contention over the division of the Carolingian Empire between the three surviving sons of Louis the Pious culminated in the decisive Battle of Fontenay-en-Puisaye, also called the Battle of Fontenoy, fought at Fontenay on the 25 June 841. It was a defeat for the allied forces of Lothair I of Italy and Pepin II of Aquitaine and a victory for Charles the Bald and Louis the German.

The two armies, of about 150,000 men each, met. According to tradition, Charles established his camp at Thury, on the hill of Roichat. Lothair and Pepin initiated battle and took the upper hand until the arrival of Guerin and his army of Provençals. While Pepin and his contingent continued to push back Charles men, Lothair was slowly pushed back himself by Louis the German and the Provençals. Finally, when victory seemed sure for Charles, Bernard of Septimania entered the conflict on his side and the victory became a rout. A total of 40,000 men died, including Gerard of Auvergne and Ricwin of Nantes, who fell at Charles' side.

In spite of his personal gallantry, Lothair was defeated and fled to his capital of Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen). With fresh troops he entered upon a war of plunder, but the forces of his brothers were too strong for him, and taking with him such treasure as he could collect, he abandoned to them his capital.

§Ireland

Battle at Magh-Ochtar in Kildare, Ireland, at which Feidlimid mac Cremthanin is defeated by the Southern Uí Neill.

Founding of the Norse town of Dyflinn or Dublin in Ireland

§Netherlands

Viking Rorik ruled from about 840 to 880, from the town of Dorestad.

§Scandinavia

§Denmark

Ruled by Horik I

§Sources

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