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7000BCE

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§Of World Interest

See Holocene Climatic Optimum.

§Africa

Prehistoric people in Saharan Africa had dairy farming operations 7000 years ago an insight revealed by their pottery.

§Ethiopia

Around 7000 BCE, the settlers of the Ethiopian highlands domesticated donkeys

§Modern Niger

Tenerians colonized the region between 7000 BCE and 4500 BCE

§Asia

§China

The Jiahu settled in China about this time.

§Europe

Copper metallurgy is known to have existed in Europe since 7000 BCE.

§Greece

The oldest signs of inhabitants on Crete are ceramic Neolithic remains that date to approximately 7000 BCE. The first use of pottery in this region dates from this period. Pottery use in Japan predated this by several thousand years.

Hypotheses of early farming spreading from Asia Minor and the Middle East to Greece around 7000BCE exist.

§Spain

Cave paintings at Cingle de la Mola, Castellón, dated to this period, indicated the 28 day regularity of the lunar cycle.

§Far East

§China

Definite evidence of early rice cultivation around 7000BCE, although claims have been made that such cultivation could have happened as long as 5000 years earlier with types such as Indica and Japonica.

Domestication of rice – More recent studies have suggested that wild rice (Oryza sativa) was domesticated in the Pearl River regions of modern day China around 9000 years ago. It is believed to have been cultivated into the indica and japonica varieties. It is now grown on every continent in the world apart from Antarctica and there are over 40,000 different varieties.

§India

Archaeological evidence from Mehrgarh (7000 BCE) shows construction of mud brick houses and granaries

Proto-Vedic period ends. Early Vedic period begins.

Time of Manu Vaivasvata, "father of mankind," of Sarasvati-Drishadvati area (also said to be a South Indian Maharaja who sailed to the Himalayas during a great flood).

Early evidence of horses in the Ganga region (Frawley).

Indus-Sarasvati area residents of Mehrgarh grow barley, raise sheep and goats. They store grain, entomb their dead and construct buildings of sun-baked mud bricks.

§Middle East

§Anatolia

One of the earliest discoveries of copper extraction and smelting discovered at Çayönü in modern day Turkey. The site dates to around 7200-6600BCE.

Çayönü is a fine example of an archaeological site offering clues about pre-pottery Neolithic peoples. Evidence shows good example of the earliest domesticated species including sheep and goats, and the wheats, emmer and einkorn, these among others. Evidence of building work in a considered manner with walled buildings with a adjoining walls to separate rooms, and the rooms suspected of having different purposes according to their varying sizes. Some may be private living areas, while others may serve a communal purpose. The rooms would have been accessed by the roof. As is accepted for these early settled societies, the organised manner of cultivation ensured reliable food sources, thus enabling inhabitants to spend their free time on less essential endeavours such as creation of art forms such as jewellery.

§Egypt

Pottery from the Nabta plateau on the Egyptian-Sudanese border was dated to about this period. In the Nabta Playa there were deep year-round water wells dug, and large organized settlements designed in planned arrangements.

There was agriculture, both animal and cereal, in the East Sahara region.

§Jordan

'Ain Ghazal is an archaeological site in Jordan which is believed to have been occupied from 7200BCE to 5000BCE. At its height it measured at least 9.5 hectares which was around three times the size of the more famed settlement of Jericho, and was possibly home to around 3000 people. As is common with any continuously occupied site, it not only offers ideas regarding everyday life relating to a period in time, but also indications as to how life developed over a period of time. For example, there is no firm evidence of animal domestication when the site was at its population peak in around 7000BCE, but certainly evidence of animal domestication developing over the following 2000 years when the population was substantially less is undeniable. 'Ain Ghazal is famous for the anthropomorphic (quasi-human or human-like) lime plaster figurines which were carefully created with special attention to the eyes.

§Jericho

Goats were domesticated and a 10 acres settlement was surrounded by a defensive wall with 30 foot towers.

§Lebanon

Byblos was settled from the Neolithic (carbon-dating tests have set the age of earliest settlement around 7000), a city since the 3rd millennium BC. Byblos had a reputation as the "oldest city in the world" in Antiquity (according to Philo of Byblos).

§Levant

Domestication of chickpeas – The domestication of this legume would be difficult to place anywhere other than in the Levant countries, for not only do wild varieties still grow in the region, but evidence of it’s cultivation exist in a number of the archaeological sites of the area. A great many of these sites point towards an established cultivation around 7000BCE, but as with many domestication dates applied to various animals and plants, the process would have taken hundreds, if not thousands of years to go from initial experimentation to widespread and mainstream culture. Chickpeas (Cicer arietinum) are extensively used in cookery today and are known for being easy to store, an important trait during Neolithic times.

§Pakistan

Mehrgarh Period I

Mehrgarh Period I 7000 BCE–5500 BCE, was Neolithic and aceramic (i.e., without the use of pottery). The earliest farming in the area was developed by semi-nomadic people using plants such as wheat and barley and animals such as sheep, goats and cattle. The settlement was established with simple mud buildings and most of them had four internal subdivisions. Numerous burials have been found, many with elaborate goods such as baskets, stone and bone tools, beads, bangles, pendants and occasionally animal sacrifices, with more goods left with burials of males. Ornaments of sea shell, limestone, turquoise, lapis lazuli, sandstone have been found, along with simple figurines of women and animals. Sea shells from far sea shore and lapis lazuli found far in Badakshan, Afghanistan shows good contact with those areas. A single ground stone axe was discovered in a burial, and several more were obtained from the surface. These ground stone axes are the earliest to come from a stratified context in the South Asia. Periods I, II and III are contemporaneous with another site called Kili Gul Mohammed.

In 2001, archaeologists studying the remains of two men from Mehrgarh made the discovery that the people of the Indus Valley Civilization, from the early Harappan periods, had knowledge of proto-dentistry. Later, in April 2006, it was announced in the scientific journal Nature that the oldest (and first early Neolithic) evidence for the drilling of human teeth in vivo (i.e. in a living person) was found in Mehrgarh. According to the authors, their discoveries point to a tradition of proto-dentistry in the early farming cultures of that region. "Here we describe eleven drilled molar crowns from nine adults discovered in a Neolithic graveyard in Pakistan that dates from 7,500 to 9,000 years ago. These findings provide evidence for a long tradition of a type of proto-dentistry in an early farming culture

Inhabitants of Mehrgarh fashioned tools with local copper ore (ore used as pigment) between 7700–3300 BC

§Mesopotamia

Jarmo (Qal'at Jarmo) is an archeological site located in Northern Iraq on the foothills of Zagros Mountains east of Kirkuk city (coordinates 35°34'N, 44°55'E). It is known as the oldest agricultural community in the world, dating back to 7000 BCE. Jarmo is broadly contemporary with such other important Neolithic sites such as Jericho in the southern Levant and Çatal Hüyük in Anatolia.The site of Jarmo is approximately three to four acres (12,000 to 16,000 m²) in size and lies at an altitude of 800 meters above sea level in a belt of oak and pistachio woodlands. It was first excavated by Robert Braidwood.

The excavations exposed a small village, covering an area of 12,000 to 16,000 m², and which has been dated (by carbon-14) to 7090 BCE. The entire site consists of twelve levels. Jarmo appears to be two older, permanent Neolithic settlements and, approximately, contemporary with Jericho or the Neolithic stage of Shanidar. The high point is likely to have been between 6,200 and 5,800 BC.

This small village consisted of some twenty five houses, with adobe walls and sun-dried mud roofs, which rested on stone foundations, with a simple floor plan dug from the earth. These dwellings were frequently repaired or rebuilt. In all, about 150 people lived in the village, which was clearly a permanent settlement.

In the earlier phases there is a preponderance of objects made from stone, silex- using older styles- and obsidian. The use of this latter material, obtained from the area of Lake Van, 200 miles away, suggests that some form of organized trade already existed, as does the presence of ornamental shells from the Persian Gulf. In the oldest level baskets have been found, waterproofed with pitch, which is readily available in the area.

§Persia (Iran)

The south-western part of Iran was part of the Fertile Crescent where most of humanity's first major crops were grown, in villages such as Susa (now a city still existing since 7000 BCE).

§Near East (Modern Pakistan)

The Indus Valley Tradition is divided into four eras, and each era can be divided into various phases. A phase is an archaeological unit possessing traits sufficiently characteristic to distinguish it from all other units similarly conceived. Each phase can be subdivided into interaction systems. Indus Valley Tradition: Mehrgarh I (aceramic Neolithic) Period lasting from 7000 to 5500 BCE. This is the early food producing era. The earliest farming in the area was developed by semi-nomadic people using plants such as wheat and barley and animals such as sheep, goats and cattle. The settlement was established with simple mud buildings with four internal subdivisions. Numerous burials have been found, many with elaborate goods such as baskets, stone and bone tools, beads, bangles, pendants and occasionally animal sacrifices, with more goods left with burials of males. Ornaments of sea shell, limestone, turquoise, lapis lazuli, sandstone and polished copper have been found, along with simple figurines of women and animals. Sea shells from far sea shore and lapis lazuli found far in Badakshan, Afghanistan shows good contact with those areas. A single ground stone axe was discovered in a burial, and several more were obtained from the surface. These ground stone axes are the earliest to come from a stratified context in the South Asia.

In 2001, archaeologists studying the remains of two men from Mehrgarh made the discovery that the people of the Indus Valley Civilization, from the early Harappan periods, had knowledge of proto-dentistry. Later, in April 2006, it was announced in the scientific journal Nature that the oldest (and first early Neolithic) evidence for the drilling of human teeth in vivo (i.e. in a living person) was found in Mehrgarh. According to the authors, their discoveries point to a tradition of proto-dentistry in the early farming cultures of that region. "Here we describe eleven drilled molar crowns from nine adults discovered in a Neolithic graveyard in Pakistan that dates from 7,500 to 9,000 years ago. These findings provide evidence for a long tradition of a type of proto-dentistry in an early farming culture.

§North America

§Modern Mexico

Around 9,000 years ago, ancient Amerindians domesticated corn and initiated an agricultural revolution, leading to the formation of many complex civilizations. These civilizations revolved around cities with writing, monumental architecture, astronomical studies, mathematics, and militaries.

§Lake Huron Region

Hunters in this region hunted caribou by creating large array of linear stone lanes and V-shaped structures. These still exist submerged in Lake Huron but the dry during this period because of the last ice age. These structures helped natives corral caribou herds migrating across what was then an exposed land-corridor the so-called Alpena-Amberley Ridge connecting northeast Michigan to southern Ontario.

§Scandinavia

§Denmark

With a continuing rise in temperature the oak, elm and hazel arrived in Denmark around 7000 BCE. Now boar, red deer, and roe also began to abound. Based on estimates of the amount of game animals scholars estimate the population of Denmark to have been between 3300-8000 persons in the time around 7000 BCE. It is believed that the early hunter-gatherers lived nomadically, exploiting different environments at different times of the year, gradually shifting to the use of semi permanent base camps.

§Sources

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