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<< 70 Kyr | 2 Ma-10000 BCE | 50 Kyr >>


Upper Paleolithic Neanderthals (approximately 130,000 to 45,000) - Upper Paleolithic Neanderthals sites include: Krapina, Saccopastore, Malarnaud, Altamura, Gánovce, Denisova, Okladnikov, Pech de l'Azé, Tabun, Kebara, Régourdou, Mt. Circeo, La Ferrassie, Combe Grenal, La Chapelle, Amud, Shanidar, Teshik-Tash, and Feldhofer.

It is believed that neanderthal man began interbreeding with modern homo sapiens about this time.


It appears that migrations out of Africa began about 60,000 years ago and little is currently known about the period between Eve and the dispersal. Aborigines' ancestors split from the first populations in Africa 62,000 to 75,000 years ago, moving east, eventually to Australia. Scientists studying a 1960s core from the bottom of the Gulf of Aden have surmised that the period 60,000 years ago in Africa was cold and dry due to the contents of the sediments. The researchers believe that this pushed homo sapiens out of Africa.

Scientists claim that we share a common ancestor from 60,000 years ago. A man living in Africa. Y-chromosomal Adam lives in Africa. He is the most recent common ancestor from whom all male human Y chromosomes are descended. Appearance of mitochondrial haplogroups M and N, which participate in the migration out of Africa. Homo sapiens that leave Africa in this wave start interbreeding with the Neanderthals they encounter. Today, as much as 2% of our DNA is still Neanderthal.

Early writing

It is possible that the first writing appeared about this time. Engraved ostrich shells on 270 shell fragments at the Diepkloof Rock Shelter in the Western Cape, South Africa exhibit signs of meaningful communication. These engravings could indicate either the contents of the shell, as they were storage containers, or the name of the owner. There are signs that the symbols evolved over 5000 years.


The oldest arrowhead found to date, 60,000 years old was found in Sibudu Cave in South Africa. It is an important Middle Stone Age site occupied, with some gaps, from 77,000 years ago to 38,000 years ago.


The stone age in India from approximately 70,000 BCE to 7000 BCE.

§Middle East


Kebara Cave has been a site of Paleolithical human occupation. Dates exist suggesting that it was occupied as much as 200,000 years ago, however the popular theory dates occupation back to 60,000 years ago.

The most exciting discovery at this site was in 1982, one of the most complete Neandethal skeletons was uncovered. Therefore, any artefacts recovered at the site dating to a similar period would most likely develop theories regarding Neaderthal lifestyles.

Excavations have revealed a number of animal bones which show signs of butchering and the tools which would have been manufactured and used for these purposes.

Examination of the skeleton has helped scientists move closer to conclusions regarding Neanderthal speech and language which is now believed to be more complex than originally though.

Further human occupation of the site by homo sapiens is also believed to have occurred around 12,000 years ago.

§South Pacific


Scientists believe that from the period around 400,000 BCE giant marsupials, kangaroos and wombats, roamed the outback. They went extinct around 50,000 BCE coincident with the arrival of humans on the continent. Evidence discovered in 2017 has shown that humans arrived in Australia 65,000 years ago, far earlier than once believed. This may have given humans time to drive animals to extinction.


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Page last modified on October 06, 2017, at 12:55 PM