The earliest vertebrates (backboned animals that include mammals) were jawless fishes known as agnathans. The oldest vertebrate species were discovered in the 1990s in 530-million-year-old shale fossil beds in China, where scientists uncovered two types of tiny jawless fish they named Haikouichthys and Myllokunmingia. Previously, fish weren't thought to have arisen until some 50 million years later, well into the Ordovician period. Agnathan fishes were prominent in the seas until they gave rise to jawed fish, which largely replaced them. Living representatives still survive in the shape of eel-like lampreys and hagfish.
- The Phanerozoic eon begins 542 million years ago
- 517 Mya End-Botomian mass extinction; little understood
- 502 Mya Dresbachian extinction event
- 488 Mya Cambrian–Ordovician extinction event
The climate of the Cambrian is not well known. It was probably not very hot, nor very cold. There is no evidence of ice at the poles
Many aquatic plants: some plants begin to invade the land. Trilobites, bracholopods, and many other invertgrates, evidence of shells through fossils from this period.
The Cambrian is a major division of the geologic timescale that begins about 542 ± 1.0 Ma (million years ago) at the end of the Proterozoic eon and ended about 488.3 ± 1.7 Ma with the beginning of the Ordovician period (ICS, 2004). It is the first period of the Paleozoic era of the Phanerozoic eon.
The Cambrian is the earliest period in whose rocks are found numerous large, distinctly fossilizable multicellular organisms that are more complex than sponges or medusoids. During this time, roughly fifty separate major groups of organisms or "phyla" (a phylum defines the basic body plan of some group of modern or extinct animals) emerged suddenly, in most cases without evident precursors (Gould, 1989). This radiation of animal phyla is referred to as the Cambrian explosion.
The Cambrian explosion is a significant and dramatic event in the history of animal evolution. Evidence supports a significant explosion and diversification of life in a very short period of time. It appeared that animal body structure underwent a notable radicalisation in terms of its complexity, such as the development of a much more modern bone structure, for example the formation of a bony spine. The strangeness of this event has raised significant debate regarding its validity. Fossil records support an explosion in life forms but some question the apparently rapidity arguing that missing fossil records may be the reason why this explosion appears to be so sudden. A popular thought process relates to the ever growing amount of free oxygen which was estimated to at the time occupy approximately 13% of the atmosphere. This abundance of oxygen served to fuel the existing ocean life forms to such great effect that their evolutional development was suddenly accelerated.
Although there apparently seemed to be an initial explosion of evolution during the Precambrian Ediacaran period, the subsequent Cambrian explosion is significant for being responsible for creating most of the lineages of today’s animals.
Such was the strangeness of this evidential discovery; it even went so far as to cause Charles Darwin to question his own theory regarding natural selection.
The Cambrian period follows after the Neoproterozoic and is followed by the Ordovician period. The Cambrian is divided into three epochs — the Early Cambrian (Caerfai or Waucoban), Middle Cambrian (St Davids or Albertian) and Furongian (also known as Late Cambrian, Merioneth or Croixan). Rocks of these epochs are referred to as belonging to the Lower, Middle, or Upper Cambrian.
Each of the epochs are divided into two faunal stages. Only one, the Paibian, has been recognized by the International Commission on Stratigraphy, and others are still unnamed. However, the Cambrian is divided into several regional faunal stages:
The time range for the Cambrian has classically been thought to have been from about 500 mya to about 570 mya. The lower boundary of the Cambrian was traditionally set at the earliest appearance of early arthropods known as trilobites and of primitive reef-forming animals known as archeocyathids. The end of the period was eventually set at a fairly definite faunal change now identified as an extinction event. Fossil discoveries and radioactive dating in the last quarter of the 20th century have called these dates into question. Date inconsistencies as large as 20 Ma are common between authors. Framing dates of ca. (approximately) 545 to 490 mya were proposed by the International Subcommission on Global Stratigraphy as recently as 2002.
A radiometric date from New Brunswick puts the end of the first stage of the Cambrian around 511 mya. This leaves 21 Ma for the other two stages of the Cambrian.
A more precise date of 542 ± 0.3 mya for the extinction event at the beginning of the Cambrian has recently been submitted. The rationale for this precise dating is interesting in itself as an example of paleological deductive reasoning. Exactly at the Cambrian boundary there is a marked fall in the abundance of carbon-13, a "reverse spike" that paleontologists call an excursion. It is so widespread that it is the best indicator of the position of the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary in stratigraphic sequences of roughly this age. One of the places that this well-established carbon-13 excursion occurs is in Oman. Amthor (2003) describes evidence from Oman that indicates the carbon-isotope excursion relates to a mass extinction: the disappearance of distinctive fossils from the pre-Cambrian coincides exactly with the carbon-13 anomaly. Fortunately, in the Oman sequence, so too does a volcanic ash horizon from which zircons provide a very precise age of 542 ± 0.3 Ma (calculated on the decay rate of uranium to lead). This new and precise date tallies with the less precise dates for the carbon-13 anomaly, derived from sequences in Siberia and Namibia. It is presented here as likely to become accepted as the definitive age for the start of the Phanerozoic eon, and thus the start of the Palaeozoic era and the Cambrian period.
Cambrian continents are thought to have resulted from the breakup of a Neoproterozoic supercontinent called Pannotia. The waters of the Cambrian period appear to have been widespread and shallow. It is thought that Cambrian climates were significantly warmer than those of preceding times that experienced extensive ice ages discussed as the Varanger glaciation. Also there was no glaciation at the poles. Continental drift rates in the Cambrian may have been anomalously high. Laurentia, Baltica and Siberia remained independent continents since the break-up of the supercontinent of Pannotia. Gondwana started to drift towards the South Pole. Panthalassa covered most of the southern hemisphere, and minor oceans included the Proto-Tethys Ocean, Iapetus Ocean, and Khanty Ocean, all of which expanded by this time.
Aside from a few enigmatic forms that may or may not represent animals, all modern animal phyla with any fossil record to speak of (except bryozoans) appear to have representatives in the Cambrian, and of these most except sponges seem to have originated just after or just before the start of the period. However, several modern phyla, primarily those with small and/or soft bodies, have no fossil record, in the Cambrian or otherwise. Many extinct phyla and odd animals that have unclear relationships to other animals also appear in the Cambrian. The apparent "sudden" appearance of very diverse faunas over a period of no more than a few tens of millions of years is referred to as the "Cambrian Explosion". Also the first possible tracks on land dating to 530 ma appeared at this time.
The best studied sites where the soft parts of organisms have fossilized are in the Burgess shale of British Columbia. They represent strata from the Middle Cambrian and provide us with a wealth of information on early animal diversity. Similar faunas have subsequently been found in a number of other places — most importantly in very early Cambrian shales in the People's Republic of China's Yunnan Province (see Maotianshan shales). Fairly extensive Precambrian Ediacaran faunas have been identified in the past 50 years, but their relationships to Cambrian forms are quite obscure.
Generally it is accepted that there were no land plants at this time although molecular dating suggests that land plants appeared earlier, in the Precambrian about 700 ma and fungi about 1 billion years ago also in the Precambrian. The land at this time was a barren land of desert and badlands. Marine green algae probably appeared at this time, and they eventually evolved into land plants, in the Late Ordovician.
There were also no land fungi at this time. Marine fungi were probably common in the oceans.
- The Columbia History of the World, Harper & Row, 1972