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<< | 4999-4990 BCE | 4998 BCE >>

§Of World Interest

Gold metalworking dates back to about this time.

The Earth's temperature was about .7 C warmer than 1990 averages.



Yangshao culture

Evidence of rice cultivation and basketry

§Near East

The Indus Valley Tradition: Mehrgarh II-VI (ceramic Neolithic), Regionalization era.


By 5000 BCE, Africa entered a dry phase, and the climate of the Sahara region gradually became drier. The population trekked out of the Sahara region in all directions, including towards the Nile Valley below the Second Cataract, where they made permanent or semipermanent settlements. A major climatic recession occurred, lessening the heavy and persistent rains in central and eastern Africa. Since then, dry conditions have prevailed in eastern Africa.


From about 5000 to 4200 BCE flourished in Lower Egypt the Merimde Culture, so far only known from a big settlement site at the edge of the Western Delta. The culture has strong connections to the Faiyum A Culture, but also links to Palestine. People lived in small huts, produced a simple undecorated pottery and had stone tools. Cattle, sheep, goats and pigs were held. Wheat, sorghum and barley were planted. The Merimde people buried the dead within the settlement and produced clay figurines. The first Egyptian lifesize head made of clay comes from Merimde.


Néolithique Récent (Late Neolithic) corresponding to the Middle Chalcolithic of Beth Shean and represented by pottery, stone vessels, silos, chamber tombs and seals, dated between 5300 and 4500 BC.



Għar Dalam phase of Neolithic farmers on Malta, possibly immigrant farmers from the Agrigento region of Sicily.

§Southeast Europe Romania, Moldova and Ukraine

The Cucuteni-Trypillian culture (Precucuteni I-III 5100-4600 Trypillian A) belonged to tribal social groups. The important physical features of the land were rolling plains, river valleys, the Black Sea, and the Carpathian Mountains, which were covered by a mixed forest in the west, that gave way to the open grasslands of the steppes in the east. The climate during the time that this culture flourished has been named the Holocene climatic optimum, and featured cool, wet winters and warm, moist summers. These conditions would have created a very favorable climate for agriculture in this region.


Archeological cultures of Sardinia in the pre-Nuragic period: Cardium Pottery or Filiestru culture (6000−4000 BC)


<< | 4999-4990 BCE | 4998 BCE >>

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