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Europe and Asia were first settled as many as 38,000 years ago.


Late surviving Neanderthals ( after 45,000) - Sites of late surviving Neanderthals are those that date to after 45 kyr, and especially those dating to after 35 kyr. Sites that are on that list include: La Quina, Zafarraya, Hortus, Vindija, Kulna, Šipka, Saint Césaire, Arcy-Sur-Cure, Bacho Kiro, El Castillo, Bñnolas, Devil's Tower, and Le Moustier.

Modern Europeans may have interbred with Neanderthals as recently as 37,000 years ago, and as early as 60,000 years ago, after modern humans with advanced stone tools expanded out of Africa. There is speculation whether there were two migrations out of Africa, with an earlier migration around 100,000 years ago.


Mining took place in the Ngwenya Mine located on Bomvu Ridge, northwest of Mbabane and near the north-western border of Swaziland. This mine is considered to be the world's oldest. Radiocarbon dating dates this mine to have begun 41,000 to 43,000 years ago. The first evidence of prehistoric activity was recorded in 1947.

Subsequently some 20 years later it was discovered that at least 100,000 tons of ore had been removed prior to commencement of modern opencast operations by the Swaziland Iron Ore development Company.

40,000 BCE is a later date for the proposed dispersal of man out of Africa.



Most scholars agree that by around 40,000 BC glaciation had connected the Japanese islands with the Asian mainland. Based on archaeological evidence, between 35,000 BC and 30,000 BC Homo sapiens had migrated to the islands from eastern and southeastern Asia and had well-established patterns of hunting and gathering and stone toolmaking. Stone tools, inhabitation sites, and human fossils from this period have been found throughout all the islands of Japan. Additionally, a 1988 genetic study points to an East Asian base for the Japanese people.


§Modern France

Homo sapiens, the Cro-Magnons, arrived around 40,000 years ago during a particularly mild climate, when Europe was relatively warm, and food was plentiful. When they arrived in Europe, they brought with them sculpture, engraving, painting, body ornamentation, music and the painstaking decoration of utilitarian objects. Some of the oldest works of art in the world, such as the cave paintings at Lascaux in southern France, are datable to shortly after this migration.

§Modern Germany

The Venus of Hohle Fels, a small figurine of a female was dated to about this time, between 35,000 and 40,000 years ago.

The Swabian Alb region has a number of caves that have yielded mammoth ivory artifacts of the Upper Paleolithic period, totaling about twenty-five items to date. These include the lion-headed figure of Hohlenstein-Stadel and an ivory flute found at Geißenklösterle, dated to 36,000 years ago. This concentration of evidence of full behavioral modernity in the period of 40 to 30 thousand years ago, including figurative art and instrumental music, is unique worldwide and Conard speculates that the bearers of the Aurignacian culture in the Swabian Alb may be credited with the invention, not just of figurative art and music, but possibly, early religion as well. In a distance of 70cm to the Venus figurine Conard's team found a flute made from a vulture bone. Additional artifacts excavated from the same cave layer included flint-knapping debris, worked bone, and carved ivory as well as remains of tarpans, reindeer, cave bears, woolly mammoths, and Alpine Ibexes.

The discovery of the Venus of Hohle Fels pushes back the date of the oldest prehistoric sculpture, and arguably the oldest known figurative art altogether, by several millennia, establishing that works of art were being produced throughout the Aurignacian Period

Discovery of bone flute fragments in Geißenklösterle Cave now date back to around 42,000 years, instead of 37,000 years, as earlier perceived.[

§Southeastern Europe (Balkans)

Crucial changes that define the earliest emergence of Homo sapiens sapiens are presented at Bacho Kiro at 44,000 BC.

In 2002, some of the oldest modern human (Homo sapiens sapiens) remains in Europe were discovered in the "Cave With Bones" (Peștera cu Oase), near Anina, Romania. Nicknamed "John of Anina" (Ion din Anina), the remains (the lower jaw) are approximately 37,800 years old.

§Modern Italy

A Campanian ignimbrite super-eruption of the volcano near Naples around 40,000 years ago has been hypothesised as having contributed to the demise of the Neanderthal, based on evidence from Mezmaiskaya cave in the Caucasus Mountains of southern Russia


A find along the Siberian river has yielded the oldest modern human genome yet recovered. The man, who lived 45,000 years ago, was definitely related to both humans and Neanderthals.

Flaked stone artefacts have been found in Streletskaya in the Chuvash Republic in European Russia. Dating has placed these finds from the Upper Paleolithic possibly between 40,000 and 30,000 years ago.


Cave of El Castillo – Quite possibly the world’s oldest cave art exists in this cave overlooking Puente Viesgo in the Cantabria province in the north of Spain. The art has been dated to around 40,000 years ago which raises interesting questions regarding the identity of the artists. The oldest cave painting known so far, a red disk painted at least 40,800 years ago is in El Castillo cave. Much speculation surrounds the question of how long ago homo sapiens would have arrived at this region. Had the homo sapiens arrived in this area of Europe by the time these paintings had been created, and if not could this be Neanderthal art which some would believe that they didn’t have the cultural imagination to create? Nonetheless, a fascinating set of discoveries which has provoked much speculation regarding their origins.

Neanderthals suffered periods of starvation and may have supplemented their diet through cannibalism, according to a 2006 study of 43,000-year-old skeletal remains from northwestern Spain.

"There is strong evidence suggesting that these Neanderthals were eaten," the study's lead author, Antonio Rosas of the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales in Madrid, told Live Science in an earlier interview. "That is, long bones and the skull were broken for extraction of the marrow, [which] is very nutritious."


The stone age in India from approximately 70,000 BCE to 7000 BCE.

§North America


40,000 Years ago - Human presence in Mesoamerica

§American Southwest

Calico Ghost Town was the site of a California Indian tribe settlement 38,000 years ago.


At Moldova, in Southern Russia, there was evidence of a ring of mammoth bones as possible tent structures dating to before 40,000 BCE.

The Kurile lake caldera was formed by two large volcanic explosions, one 41,500 radiocarbon years ago and the other around 6440 BC.

§South America


A popular theory was always that humans first crossed from Asia to America around 15,000 years ago. Carbon dating of campfire remnants has consistently thrown out dates beyond 40,000 years ago at one of the Pedra Furada sites in Piauí state, Brazil completely conflicting with this short chronology theory.

§Southeast Asia


Humans were living in this area about this time.

§South Pacific


As soon as humans developed the ability to navigate the open seas in boats, they migrated to Australia and Indonesia. Australia

One of the earliest Anatomically modern humans to be cremated is buried near Lake Mungo.

The partial cremation was of a female and has been named "Mungo Lady". Another discovery of a man, called "Mungo Man" which was sprinkled with red ochre, thought to date back at least 40,000 years.

40000 BCE - Aboriginal cave paintings in the Kakadu National Park in the Northern Territory date back 40,000 years.

35000 BCE - In 2008 archeologists unearthed tools dating back at least 35,000 years in a rock shelter in Australia's remote northwest, making it one of the oldest archaeological finds in that part of the country.

Wareen Cave is an archeological site in Tasmania which possibly dates human occupation back to 35,000 years ago.

§New Guinea

A 40,000 year old site of human occupation exists on the Huon Peninsula in modern day Papua New Guinea on the island of New Guinea. Lower sea levels are believed to have joined Sumatra, Java and Borneo as a complete landmass historically referred to as Sundra to the Southeast Asian mainland. There would most likely have been a short sea crossing to another landmass historically referred to as Sahul which contained modern day Australia and New Guinea.

§New Ireland

New Ireland is one of the easternmost islands of Papua New Guinea. It is home to an archeological site called Matenkupkum which shows evidence of human occupation dating back possibly 35,000 years ago.


The original inhabitants of the group of islands now named Melanesia were likely the ancestors of the present-day Papuan-speaking people. These people are thought to have occupied New Guinea tens of millennia ago and reached the Pacific islands 35,000 years ago (according to radiocarbon dating). They appear to have occupied these islands as far east as the main islands in the Solomon Islands (including Makira and perhaps even the smaller islands farther to the east)


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