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The kingdom of Goguryeo in Korea is founded by the king Dongmyeong. (traditional date)

§Roman Empire

Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa created the "portus Julius" in the today submersed town of Puteoli (the modern Pozzuoli, close to Naples).

Octavian engineered the Second Pact of Tarentum which renewed the Triumvirate for an additional five years.

Sometime after the publication of the Eclogues (probably before 37 BCE), Virgil became part of the circle of Maecenas, Octavian's capable agent d'affaires who sought to counter sympathy for Antony among the leading families by rallying Roman literary figures to Octavian's side. Virgil seems to have made connections with many of the other leading literary figures of the time, including Horace, in whose poetry he is often mentioned, and Varius Rufus, who later helped finish the Aeneid. At Maecenas' insistence (according to the tradition) Virgil spent the ensuing years (perhaps 37–29 BCE) on the longer didactic hexameter poem called the Georgics (from Greek, "On Working the Earth") which he dedicated to Maecenas.

§Middle East

§Judea (Modern Israel)

Antigonus II Mattathias (Antigonus the Hasmonean) was the king of Judea. In 37 BC, Herod the Great took back Judea with Roman support and beheaded Antigonus, ending the rule of the Hasmonean dynasty. Antigonus II Mattathias was the last legitimate King of Judaea of the Hasmonean dynasty, which had recovered Jewish independence from the Hellenistic Seleucid monarchy of Syria.

Antigonus was handed over by Herod to the Romans for execution in 37 BC, after a short reign of three years during which he had led a fierce struggle of the people for independence against the Romans and Romanizers such as Herod.

Antigonus II Mattathias was the only anointed King of the Jews (messiah) historically recorded to have been scourged and crucified by the Romans. Cassius Dio's Roman History records: "These people [the Jews] Antony entrusted to a certain Herod to govern; but Antigonus he bound to a cross and scourged, a punishment no other king had suffered at the hands of the Romans, and so slew him."

Antony executed Antigonus.

Herod the Great becomes king of Judea. Jonathan Aristobulus III becomes high priest.

"The phenomenon of villages and farms being abandoned at the end of the Hasmonean dynasty or the beginning of Herod the Great's succeeding rule is one that we are familiar with from many rural sites in Judea," archaeologist Yuval Baruch explained in a statement. "And it may be related to Herod's massive building projects in Jerusalem, particularly the construction of the Temple Mount, and the mass migration of villagers to the capital to work on these projects."


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