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§Of World Interest

Evidence of a sudden shift in global climate occurred about this time. The Quelccaya Ice cap was formed suddenly, suddenly freezing tropical plants. This conformed to a period near the beginning of the current Mayan calendar.



First north-west expansion of the Yamna culture from the western steppe to modern Poland, Germany, Scandinavia and Baltic countries. Creation of the Corded-Ware (or Single Grave, or Battle-Axe) culture (3200-1800 BCE).


This is one appoximate date for the construction of the Newgrange temple, a Stone Age (Neolithic) monument in the Boyne Valley, County Meath. It is a passage tomb.


The temple of Ħaġar Qim excavated for the first time in 1839, dates from the Tarxien phase (c.3200-2500 BC). It stands on a hilltop on the southern edge of the island of Malta overlooking the sea and the islet of Filfla and lies some 2km south-west of the village of Qrendi. Adjacent to Ħaġar Qim, further towards the cliff face, lies another remarkable temple site, Mnajdra. The surrounding area, which is typical of Mediterranean garrigue and spectacular in its starkness and isolation, is designated a Heritage Park.

Much of interest has been unearthed at Ħaġar Qim, notably a decorated pillar altar, two table-altars and some of the "fat lady" statues on display in the National Museum of Archaeology, Valletta.

Ħaġar Qim itself consists of a single temple unit. However, it is not clear if it was constructed as a four- or five-apse structure. Another aspect of Ħaġar Qim is the small, three-apse structure near the temple which may have been the quarters of the temple's priest or shaman. Other temple ruins stand a few metres away from the main temple.

The forecourt and façade follow the pattern typical of temples across the Islands. Particularly noteworthy are the larger orthostats at the corners, which are notched to take the second of the horizontal courses above. Apart from the replacement of a few original blocks which fell, such as the lintel over the main doorway, no restoration has been done.

Beyond the first pair of apses, the temple interior is more firmly screened off than is usual at other temple sites. Visual access seems to have been limited to porthole slabs. The only decorations at this point are a single, displaced sill stone bearing a pair of opposing spirals like those of Tarxien Temple, and the most attractive of all free-standing altars discovered at temple sites.

Through the next doorway, the right-hand apse has a curious setting of low orthostats forming a sort of pan as if intended for the corralling of animals. The left-hand side apse has a high trilithon altar on its left and three on pillar altars, two on the right with another in a small chamber behind. Less an apse than a passage, this gives access to one of the additional chambers. It consists of part of a temple unit, a central court, niche and right apse, tacked closely against the main temple. A low standing pillar stands at the end of the apse. A more complete unit – entrance, court, niche, and one pair of apses, lies to the north, and two simple oval chambers to the west.

In the external enclosing wall, the first orthostat behind the right-hand corner of the façade is one of the largest of any temple. Standing at 6.4m long, it is estimated to weigh close to 20 tonnes. The upright menhir stands 5.2m high.

§Middle East


Beginning of the Proto-elamite civilization. The Proto-Elamite period is the time from ca. 3200 BC to 2700 BC when Susa, the later capital of the Elamites, began to receive influence from the neighboring Sumerian culture, which was contemporary with it. In archaeological terms this corresponds to the late Banesh period, and it is recognized as the oldest civilization in Iran.


Historians mark this as being the beginning of the Naqada III a-b-c sub-period of the Naqada, lasting to about 3000 BCE. It is represented by:

  • more elaborate grave goods
  • cylindrical jars
  • writing

Early Dynasty - Upper Egypt

c. 3200 BCE Scorpion I, called this because the oldest tomb at Umm el-Qa'ab had a scorpion insignia on it.

§Near East

Bronze was created in the Near East around this time.


Hindu astronomers called nakshatra darshas record in Vedic texts their observations of full moon and new moon at the winter and summer solstices and Spring and Fall equinoxes with reference to 27 fixed stars (nakshatras) spaced nearly equally on the moon's ecliptic or apparent path across the sky. The precession of the equinoxes (caused by the wobbling of the Earth's axis of rotation) causes the nakshatras to appear to drift at a constant rate along a predictable course over a 25,000-year cycle. From these observations historians are able to calculate backwards and determine the date when the indicated position of moon, sun and nakshatra occurred.


Modern archaeological excavations revealed no disruption of Phoenician societies between 3200 BCE and 1200 BCE


3228 - 3102 BCE Traditionally accepted time of Krishna's life on Earth


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