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§Of General Interest

Rachel Caspari, a paleoanthropologist at Central Michigan University, found that beginning around 30,000 years ago, during the Upper Paleolithic, there was a demographic shift : Caspari counted 20 old adults for every 10 young adults, coinciding with an explosion of cultural production.



26000 BCE - 16000 BCE - Africa’s oldest known rock art dated to about this time at a site in Namibia.


East Asian physical traits have been linked to the EDAR gene, a mutation that happened 35000 years ago. researchers have identified a mutation in this critical human gene as the source of several distinctive traits that make East Asians different from other races. The mutation was found to be associated with the EDAR (ectodysplasin receptor) gene, responsible for skin characteristics such as sweat glands and hair.


Evidence of human settlement in Taiwan dates back thirty thousand years, although the first inhabitants of Taiwan may have been genetically distinct from any groups currently on the island.


All convincing evidence for Neanderthal burials ceases around 33000 BCE. Roughly coinciding with the time period of the Homo sapiens introduction to Europe and decline of the Neanderthals


DNA evidence shows that Europeans exhibit lineages that trace back to a population that lived 37,000 years ago in a region that would later be known as Belgium.


Humans have inhabited Marseille and its environs for almost 30,000 years; palaeolithic cave paintings in the underwater Cosquer cave near the calanque of Morgiou date back to between 27,000 and 19,000 BC.

Tools dating to the Upper Paleolithic (30,000-10,000 B.C.) were discovered in the Observatory Cave, in the Jardin Exotique of Monaco.

Chauvet Cave - Wonderful examples of cave paintings exist in this cave in the Ardèche region near Pont d'Arc. The preservation of these paintings are so good that it celebrates itself as one of the world's best examples of Upper Palaeolithic artwork. These paintings have been estimated to date back as far as 33,000 years ago. Many of these paintings depict animals, as well as there being the presence of animal remains and prints as well as further evidence of human presence at the site.


Paglicci Cave which overlooks the town of Rignano Garganico in the Apulia region boasts tens of thousands of historic artefacts. Remains of human and animal life has been found alongside Palaeolithic tools, cave art and jewellery. Occupation has been definitely dated to 28,000 years ago with tentative speculation of around 6,000 years previous. Many artefacts have been transported to the museum in Rignano Garganico. Italy have invested in preservation of this fragile cave due to its significance.


Bone flutes dating from around 35,000 years ago were found at Hohle Fels in the Swabian Alps. These are the oldest examples of musical instruments ever found.


Modern humans entered the Iberian Peninsula about 32,000 years ago.

The first trace of human presence in the area of Cordoba remains of a Neanderthal Man, dating to c. 32,000 BC

In the Valencian Community of Spain exists the Parpalló Cave which is believed to have been occupied by humans from around 29,000 and 11,000 years ago. The cave is most notable for its cave art which in the main part depicts horses. Dating of the rocks suggests that the artwork became an ongoing project undertaken by the occupants of this dwelling. Much of the art remains intact to the present day.


The stone age in India from approximately 70,000 BCE to 7000 BCE.

§Sri Lanka (formerly Ceylon)

Balangoda Man lived in Sri Lanka about 30,000 years ago.


§Solomon Islands

It is believed that humans first occupied the Solomon Islands around 30,000 years ago. It is thought to be as far as humans travelled in that South Pacific region of the world for about 25,000 years.

§Middle East

§Persia (Iran)

Habitation exists in Yafteh. Yafteh is an Upper Paleolithic cave located at the foot of Yafteh Mountain, north-west of Khoramabad, Western Zagros, Iran. Yafteh has yielded the largest number of C14 dates from a single Paleolithic site in Iran that are clustered around 28–35 thousand years ago. A rich collection of ornaments made of marine shells, tooth and hematite has been discovered in the early Upper Paleolithic deposits in both early and recent excavations in the Yafteh cave.

§North America

§Los Angeles (La Brea Tar Pits)

These tar pits have revealed fossils from 28,000 years ago. They include thousands of animal bones and one human. The animals found in this region during this time period include dire wolves saber-tooth cats, giant sloths, birds and more.


Although the human crossing of the Bering Straits, the stretch of water between the landmasses of Asia and the Americas is popularly thought to have occurred during the end of the Last Glacial Maximum of around 15,000 years ago, many alternative theories of the human discovery of North America exist.

Certainly there was a window of earlier opportunity for humans to have crossed the Bering Straits or the Bering land bridge, as it may well have been during that era. Homo sapiens are believed to have approached Beringia from around 40,000 years ago from Far Eastern Asia, but had they reached Beringia less than 34,000 years ago, the land bridge may likely have been submerged until around 30,000 years ago. So if the land bridge opened as early as 30,000 years ago, why would the expansionist homo sapiens not have crossed then?

Well some scientists believe that they did, even going as far as to examine general floral and faunal evidence of life in that area and from that era to prove its plausibility.

A theory has even arisen suggesting that populations did cross the Bering land bridge into North America as early as 30,000 years ago, and even that because they may have possibly struggled to find a route south that they may have died out during the Last Glacial Maximum.

The theory of humans first crossing Beringia around 17,000-15,000BCE is called the short chronology theory. That of the belief that humans crossed up to 40,000BCE is called the long chronology theory.


33,000 years ago - An ancient dog skull preserved in a cave in the Altai Mountains of Siberia for 33,000 years has turned our ideas of man's relationship with his 'best friend' on its head.

The skull is the remains of one of the oldest examples of a domesticated dog ever found - and its sheer age, combined with equally ancient dog remains from a cave in Belgium, hints that humans may have domesticated dogs in several places.

21,000-22,000 years ago - Stone Age art which appear to have been carefully buried in pits and covered with mammoth bones. The archaeologists uncovered the objects in 2005 at a site called Zaraysk, which was discovered in 1980. The site is about 100 miles southeast of Moscow. Researchers have been excavating the site since 1995, and have found a necklace made of teeth of the arctic fox and a carving of a bison made from mammoth ivory.

Zaraysk is the northernmost known location for a style of Stone Age artwork called Kostenski-Avdeevo after two other Russian locations where art of that type has been found.

Ust-Mil 2 is an archeological site which is in the Sakha (or Yakutia) Republic in the Russian Federation. Debated to date back roughly 35,000 - 25,000 years ago, it is possibly evidence of human's first journeys out of the Far East heading for the Americas.

Ust-Mil 2 is located near the Aldan river, there are further locations which date to a similar period along this river. One of those which is further north is called Ikhine suggesting that there is good evidence for a human expansion through eastern Russia.

Remains of a 30,000 year old hunter gatherer human was discovered in a layer of volcanic ash at Kostenki, which is in Voronezh Oblast, Russia.

§South Pacific


35,400 years ago - Earliest known figurative painting. A painting of an animal known as a pig deer, of the species babirusa was found in a Sulawesi cave.


The fairly nearby L1527 protostar jets started moving about 30,000 years ago given that its jets have traveled a distance of 0.4-0.5 ly over the age of the protostar and the observed velocity of motion.


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