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§Of World Interest

End of the Neolithic Period

The estimated population of the World is 14 million people.


Evidence of tree crop cultivation in the tropical regions of Africa.



Longsham Culture

Evidence of Domestication of sheep, cattle and water buffalo.

According to one popular Chinese legend, the Emperor of China Shennong, reputed to have reigned in about 3000 BCE, accidentally discovered that when some leaves fell into boiling water, a fragrant and restorative drink resulted.

An early form of the abacus, built using beads strung on wires is used in the Orient


Around 3,000 BC, the Neolithic Dapenkeng culture (named after a site in Taibei county) abruptly appeared and quickly spread around the coast of the island. Their sites are characterized by corded-ware pottery, polished stone adzes and slate points. The inhabitants cultivated rice and millet, but were also heavily reliant on marine shells and fish. Most scholars believe this culture is not derived from the Changbinian, but was brought across the Strait by the ancestors of today's Taiwanese aborigines, speaking early Austronesian languages.



Stonehenge 2 (ca. 3000 BC)

Evidence of the second phase is no longer visible. The number of postholes dating to the early 3rd millennium BC suggest that some form of timber structure was built within the enclosure during this period. Further standing timbers were placed at the northeast entrance, and a parallel alignment of posts ran inwards from the southern entrance. The postholes are smaller than the Aubrey Holes, being only around 0.4 metres (16 in) in diameter, and are much less regularly spaced. The bank was purposely reduced in height and the ditch continued to silt up. At least twenty-five of the Aubrey Holes are known to have contained later, intrusive, cremation burials dating to the two centuries after the monument's inception. It seems that whatever the holes' initial function, it changed to become a funerary one during Phase 2. Thirty further cremations were placed in the enclosure's ditch and at other points within the monument, mostly in the eastern half. Stonehenge is therefore interpreted as functioning as an enclosed cremation cemetery at this time, the earliest known cremation cemetery in the British Isles. Fragments of unburnt human bone have also been found in the ditch-fill. Dating evidence is provided by the late Neolithic grooved ware pottery that has been found in connection with the features from this phase.


Flint mining was taking place around the modern city of Aachen.

§Modern Turkey

Troy, a legendary city and center of the Trojan War, was founded about this time.

In Izmir several graves containing artifacts dating, roughly, from 3000 BC were found at a site that showed habitation for approximately 2000 years prior to these grave sites.

It was about this time that the great migrations began across the Caucasus Mountains.


§Modern Pakistan

The Indus culture blossomed over the centuries and gave rise to the Indus Valley Civilization around this time. The civilization spanned much of what is now Pakistan and North India, but suddenly went into decline around 1900 BCE.

Sophisticated irrigation and storage systems were developed by the Indus Valley Civilization, including the artificial reservoirs at Girnar in 3000 BCE


Evidence of maize cultivation in Mesoamerica.

§Middle East


The early inhabitants of Afghanistan were Aryans, who were probably connected through culture and trade to neighboring civilizations like Jiroft and Tappeh Sialk and the Indus Valley Civilization. Urban civilization may have begun as early as 3000 BCE, and the early city of Mundigak (Coordinates: 31°39′N 65°15′E) may have been a colony of the nearby Indus Valley Civilization.


Domestication of the camel – The camel exists in two different species in today’s world, the Bactrian camel which is distinguished by a double hump, and the Dromedary which has a solitary hump. The camel family range was considerably larger than today, but also considerably larger than when domestication occurred. The large camelops which was native to the American continent became extinct around 11,000 years ago. Of the two camel types left, it is believed that the dromedaries were domesticated first around 3000BCE in the Arabian Peninsula, with the alternative Bactrian perhaps being domesticated around 400 years later in modern day Iran.


One dating has Djet, Djer's predecessor as the pharaoh at this time. An alternate dating has Djer beginning his 41 year reign at this time.

Djer begins his reign as pharaoh about this time.While the 3rd Century BCE Egyptian Priest Manetho states that Djer ruled for 57 years, modern research by Toby Wilkinson in Royal Annals of Ancient Egypt stresses that the near contemporary and therefore more accurate Palermo Stone document ascribes Djer a reign of "41 complete and partial years." (Wilkinson: p.79) Wilkinson notes that Years 1-10 of Djer's reign is preserved in register II of the Palermo Stone while the middle years of this king's reign is recorded in register II of Cairo Fragment One. (Wilkinson: p.258)


Djer probably fought several battles against the Libyans in the Nile delta. The evidence for Djer's life is:

  • tomb in Umm el-Qa'ab, Abydos;
  • seal prints from graves 2185 and 3471 in Saqqara;
  • inscriptions in graves 3503, 3506 and 3035 in Saqqara
  • Seal impression and inscriptions from Helwan (Saad 1947: 165; Saad 1969: 82, pl. 94)
  • Jar from Turah with the name of the king (Kaiser 1964: 103, fig.3)
  • UC 16182 ivory tablet from Abydos, subsidiary tomb 612 of the enclosure of Djer (Petrie 1925: pl. II.8; XII.1)
  • UC 16172 copper adze with the name of king Djer (tomb 461 in Abydos, Petrie 1925: pl. III.1, IV.8)

Like his predecessor, Hor-Aha, he was buried in the holy place Abydos. Close to his grave is another, that probably belongs to his wife Merneith, mother of the later king Den, and possibly his regent during his youth. From the Eighteenth dynasty, his tomb was revered as the tomb of Osiris.

Like his predecessor, Hor-Aha, he was buried in the holy place Abydos. Close to his grave is another, that probably belongs to his wife Merneith, mother of the later king Den, and possibly his regent during his youth. From the Eighteenth dynasty, his tomb was revered as the tomb of Osiris.

Another source has Djet's son and successor, Horus-Den-OUDIMOU beginning his reign at this time.

The condom appears in drawings. It was not certain if it was used as a prophylactic or as part of dress.

Boat Burials

An excavation at Abydos found 14 wooden vessels—some as long as 75 feet— from about 3000 B.C. All lay in mud-brick structures arrayed outside the funerary complex of a 1st-dynasty king.


The recent archaeological findings at Jiroft have uncovered an independent Bronze Age civilization with its own architecture and language. This has led some archaeologists to speculate that it may be the remains of the lost Kingdom of Aratta, though others disagree. But what is known for certain is that this kingdom had a large pottery industry, was a transit hub for trade merchants, and had active interactions with the Elamites.

The most significant of these sites are Shahr-e-Sokhta (Burnt City), Tepe Bampur, Espiedej, Shahdad, Iblis, and Tepe Yahya. Some are in the neighboring Sistan and Baluchistan province.

The Kingdom of Jiroft or the Jiroft civilization (Persian: تمدن جيرفت) is a relatively recent and ongoing multinational archaeological project that aims to uncover a previously unknown ancient civilization in a series of newly discovered sites in Iran's Province of Kerman, located at 28° 48'N latitude and 57° 46'E longitude, known as Jiroft or Halilrud. There are a multitude of related sites in the vicinity.

Sir Aurel Stein was the first archaeologist to survey the area. At least twelve sites are now under excavation in the area by foreign and ICHO teams, the oldest thought to be more than 5,000 years of age.

Building of temples and canals in Sumeria, ruled by Ur-Nina. Fourth Egyptian Dynasty founded by Snefru. The Epic of Gilgamesh, in poetry form, written (One of the oldest works of literature. Fragments of the Epic of Gilgamesh were found on clay tablets in the 19th century in the ancient city of Nineveh. It tells the story of a semidivine king named Gilgamesh who sought immortality. The king was probably based on an historical king of Uruk in Mesopotamia).

§North America

§Southern California

The modern LA area was occupied by the Hokan-speaking people of the Milling Stone Period who both fished, hunted sea mammals, and gathered wild seeds.



Agricultural settlers made inroads around 3000 BCE. The Nordic Bronze Age period in Denmark featured a culture which buried its dead, with their worldly goods, beneath burial mounds. Many dolmens and rock tombs (especially "passage graves") date from this period. The many finds of bronze from this era include beautiful religious artifacts and musical instruments, and provide the earliest evidence of social classes and stratification.

§South America


Caral, a large settlement in the Supe Valley, near Supe, Barranca province, Peru, some 200 km north of Lima, was founded. Caral is one of the ancient cities of America and a well-studied site of the Norte Chico civilization.


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