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Peasant masses rose up in arms and overthrew the Qin rulers to set up the Western Han Dynasty.

Emperor Gaozu of Han (Chinese: 漢高祖; 256 BC – June 1, 195 BC), born Liu Bang (Chinese: 劉邦), was the founder and first emperor of the Han dynasty, reigning from 202 – 195 BC. He was one of the few dynasty founders in Chinese history with humble origin from the peasant class.


Accused of treason by the Carthaginians after being defeated by the Romans at the Battle of the Great Plains, Hasdrubal Gisco commits suicide to avoid being lynched by a Carthaginian mob.

October 19 — The Battle of Zama (130 kilometres south-west of Carthage) ends the Second Punic War and largely destroys the power of Carthage. Roman and Numidian forces under the laedership of the Roman general Publius Cornelius Scipio and his Numidian ally, Masinissa, defeat a combined army of Carthaginians and their Numidian allies under the command of Hannibal and forces Carthage to capitulate. Hannibal loses 20,000 men in the defeat, but he is able to escape Masinissa's pursuit.

§Roman Republic

Following the Battle of Zama, the Roman general Publius Cornelius Scipio gains the surname "Africanus" in honour of his feats in North Africa against Carthage.


The Egyptian regent and chief minister, Sosibius, retires and Agathocles, another member of the ruling clique, becomes Ptolemy V's guardian.

Agathocles' rule provokes Tlepolemus, the governor of Pelusium (Egypt's eastern frontier city), into action. Tlepolemus marches on Alexandria, where his supporters rouse a mob, compelling Agathocles to resign.

The Egyptian boy king, Ptolemy V, is encouraged by a mob clamouring for revenge against the murderers of his mother Arsinoe III to agree to Agathocles being killed. As a result, the mob searches out and butchers Agathocles and his family. Tlepolemus takes Agathocles’ place as regent. However, he soon proves to be incompetent and is removed.

During this period of confusion and change amongst Egypt’s leadership, armies under the Seleucid king, Antiochus III, make serious inroads into the Egyptian territories in Coele Syria.



Liu Bang, King of Han, defeats Xiang Yu of Western Chu in the Battle of Gaixia, ending the Chu-Han contention. Liu Bang declares himself the Emperor of China, officially beginning the Han Dynasty.

The construction of the new Chinese capital Chang'an begins.

Liu Bang gives the area of today's Fujian Province to Wuzhu as his kingdom. Wuzhu starts the construction of his own capital Ye (Fuzhou).

The construction of Changsha begins.

The Chinese of the Han dynasty made Confucianism the basis for their bureaucratic state, welcomed the introduction of Buddhism and produced the first porcelain; and they also so revered the pig that prominent individuals were often buried with whole sties full of life-size ceramic model pigs.

§Middle East


In 202 BC, Hannibal met Scipio in a fruitless peace conference. Despite mutual admiration, negotiations floundered due to Roman allegations of "Punic Faith," referring to the breach of protocols which ended the First Punic War by the Carthaginian attack on Saguntum, and a Carthaginan attack on a stranded Roman fleet. What had happened was that Scipio and Carthage had worked out a peace plan, which was approved by Rome. The terms of the treaty were quite modest, but the war had been long for the Romans. Carthage could keep its African territory but would lose its overseas empire, a fait-accompli. Masinissa (Numidia) was to be independent. Also, Carthage was to reduce its fleet and pay a war indemnity. But Carthage then made a terrible blunder. Its long-suffering citizens had captured a stranded Roman fleet in the Gulf of Tunes and stripped it of supplies, an action which aggravated the faltering negotiations. Meanwhile Hannibal, recalled from Italy by the Carthaginian senate, had returned with his army. Fortified by both Hannibal and the supplies, the Carthaginians rebuffed the treaty and Roman protests. The decisive battle at Zama soon followed, and it removed Hannibal's air of invincibility.

The Battle of Zama, fought around October 19 of 202 BC, marked the final and decisive end of the Second Punic War. A Roman army led by Publius Cornelius Scipio defeated a Carthaginian force led by Hannibal Barca. Soon after this defeat on their home ground, the Carthaginian senate sued for peace, ending the 17-year war.


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