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2016CE

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2016 began in uncertainty about many things. This is an election year for the United States presidency. The political climate in the U.S. was turned into a circus atmosphere by Presidential hopeful, Donald Trump. El Niño started in 2015 is still impacting the weather of Pacific countries causing late year storms and tornadoes. Iran and Saudi Arabia are at odds after the execution of a prominent Shiite cleric. And the Islamic State took responsibility for the bombing in Brussels in mid-March. The world economy appears to be improving for businesses but the average person still feels as though the economy never recovered. Europe is staggering under the mass migration of Syrian and Afghan refugees. By March Europe entered into an agreement with Turkey to return unqualified asylum seekers. Technologically, space vehicle companies are doing well and billions are being poured into artificial intelligence, virtual reality and robotics.

May 26 - For the first time, researchers have found a person in the United States carrying bacteria resistant to antibiotic of last resort, an alarming development that the top U.S. public health official says could signal "the end of the road" for antibiotics.

The antibiotic-resistant strain was found last month in the urine of a 49-year-old Pennsylvania woman. Defense Department researchers determined that she carried a strain of E. coli resistant to the antibiotic colistin, according to a study published Thursday in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, a publication of the American Society for Microbiology. The authors wrote that the discovery "heralds the emergence of a truly pan-drug resistant bacteria."

At mid-year it is a time of political change. Americans seem ho-hum about candidates Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump. Keiko Fujimori conceded to rival Pedro Pablo Kuczynski in Peruvian run-off elections.

September - According to Popular Science, Data released by NASA showed that August was the hottest August on record since record-keeping started in 1880, with average temperatures 1.764 degrees Fahrenheit above the average August temperatures in the years between 1951 and 1980. August also tied last July's record for the warmest month ever recorded.

This marks the 11th consecutive month that the monthly average temperatures have broken records according to NASA and will likely be the 16th consecutive month of record-breaking temperatures according to NOAA.

By October 2016 was declared the hottest year in 115,000 years.

In November, Donald Trump stunned the world by winning the US Presidential Election through votes in the electoral college. Hillary Clinton won the popular vote by more than 2.5 million votes. Recounts were underway. In the meantime, President Donald Trump assembled the richest cabinet in US history. His position on many of his campaign promises softened almost immediately after the election, such as his promise to send Hillary Clinton to jail, completely disassembling the American Affordable Care Act, deciding that portions of it were important. But a general feeling of fear has pervaded the country as immigrants to the United States are unsure of their future. Appointments to the Supreme Court will be filled by conservative right-wing judges that have thought to roll back important decisions like Roe v Wade.

December 12 - António Guterres, Secretary-General-designate of the United Nations, takes the oath of office for his five-year term

Finally, the December measurement of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere was 404.93 ppm compared to pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. The UN confirmed that 2016’s atmospheric CO2 levels were the highest Earth has seen in the last 800,000 years.

§Antarctic

This may be the first time in the history of Wikihistory that we've had categories for both the North and South poles of the planet.

June 16 - For the first time in 4 million years carbon dioxide levels at the South Pole have surpassed 400 parts per million according to NOAA. It will likely remain at this level or higher for thousands of years.

§Arctic

June 8 - The Washington Post said:

"The Arctic Ocean this May had more than three Californias less sea ice cover than it did during an average May between 1981 and 2010. And it broke the prior record low for May by a region larger than California, although not quite as large as Texas."

According to the National Snow and Ice Data Center:

Daily extents in May were also two to four weeks ahead of levels seen in 2012, which had the lowest September extent in the satellite record. The monthly average extent for May 2016 is more than one million square kilometers (386,000 square miles) below that observed in May 2012.

§Asia

§Japan

April - Seventeen dead dolphins were found stranded on the beach at Fukushima. Autopsies confirmed they died of radiation poisoning.

§North Korea

May 9 - North Korea said it would further strengthen self-defensive nuclear weapons capability "in quality and quantity" in a decision adopted at a rare Workers' Party congress.

September 9 - A 5.3 earthquake was the result of a nuclear test. North Korean officials announced a successful test of a nuclear weapon and stated, “This is our response to hostile powers, including the United States. We are sending out a message that if the enemies attack us, we can counterattack. We will continue taking measures to protect our dignity and our right to exist from the American threat."

§South Korea

December - South Korean President Park Geun-hye faces the political fight of her life as lawmakers attempt to force her from office over prosecution claims that she helped a confidante extort money and favors from companies.

December 8 - South Korean President Park Geun-hye was impeached.

§Europe

§Austria

May 9 - Austria's chancellor resigned, citing insufficient political support within his party to deal with challenges, including efforts to confront the ongoing migrant crisis.

December - Alexander Van der Bellen, who ran as an independent, increased his lead over the Freedom party candidate, Norbert Hofer, by a considerable margin from the original vote in May, which was annulled by the constitutional court because of sloppy vote-counting.

The rightwing populist candidate conceded defeat within less than half an hour of the first exit polls, writing on Facebook: “I congratulate Alexander Van der Bellen for his success and ask all Austrians to pull together and work together.” The 45-year-old said he was “endlessly sad” and “would have liked to look after Austria”.

§Belgium

March 17 - Europe’s most wanted man, Salah Abdeslam, was captured in Brussels. He is the sole survivor of the 10 men believed to have been directly involved in the Islamic State attacks that killed 130 people in and around Paris on November 13, 2015. March 21 - Terrorists exploded bombs in the Brussels airport and subway killing approximately 34 people. At least one of the two airport explosions was touched off by a suicide bomber, officials said. At least 34 people were killed — 14 at the airport and 20 at the subway station — and many more wounded, including 92 at the airport and 106 at the subway station.

Amaq, a news agency affiliated with the Islamic State, issued a bulletin saying the militant group was responsibile for the attacks.

“Islamic State fighters carried out a series of bombings with explosive belts and devices on Tuesday, targeting an airport and a central metro station in the center of the Belgian capital, Brussels, a country participating in the coalition against the Islamic State,” it said. “Islamic State fighters opened fire inside the Zaventem airport, before several of them detonated their explosive belts, as a martyrdom bomber detonated his explosive belt in the Maelbeek metro station.”

§France

June 3 - The swollen Seine River surged to its highest levels in nearly 35 years spilling into Paris streets causing landmarks to shut down.

July 14 - A truck rammed a group of people celebrating Bastille Day in Nice. As many as 70 people have died.

§Great Britain

June 23 - Great Britain held a referendum to decide if they are going to leave the EU, known as the Brexit.

June 24 - By a narrow margin Britains voted to leave the European Union. The British Pound hit a low not seen since 1985 and the world financial markets were put into crisis. Prime Minister David Cameron said he would resign. One of the primary reasons for British voters in deciding to leave the EU was the fear of being overrun by immigrants. Also globalization concerns and a desire to remove Britain from under Brussels’ thumb were also key factors.

The referendum came about as a result of a promise made in 2013 by Cameron to appease an increasingly vocal anti-European Union wing of his Conservative Party.

There will be a great deal of long term impact but immediately Scotland and Northern Ireland called for new moves toward separating from Britain.

July 13 - David Cameron resigned as Prime Minister

July 13 - Theresa May became the new Prime Minister.

§Italy

December 7 - Italian Prime Minister Renzi resigned after his promise to resign if his reform package did not pass. He had tried to reduce the size of the Italian government.

§Scotland

May 6 - Scottish National Party leader Nicola Sturgeon says she will lead a minority government after her party fell short of winning an outright majority in the Scottish Parliament.

§Spain

October 1 - Pedro Sanchez announces his resignation as Spain's Socialist party (PSOE) leader

§Middle East

§Afghanistan

July 23 - At least 80 people were killed and more than 230 wounded in Kabul when attackers detonated explosives amid a huge crowd of peaceful protesters.

§Egypt

December 11 - A bomb exploded during a Catholic Sunday mass at a church in Cairo, killing at least 25 people and wounding many, including women and children.

§Iran

January 16 - U.S. and European Union sanctions on Tehran were lifted after complying with a 2015 nuclear deal. A prisoner swap also took place.

§Iraq

Protesters stormed Iraq's parliament Saturday in a dramatic culmination of months of demonstrations, casting uncertainty over the tenure of the country's prime minister and the foundations of the political system laid in place after 2003

July 3 - At least 121 people died when a suicide car bomb blew up in a busy shopping street in central Baghdad

§Israel

May 4 - Israel and Gaza militants begin an escalation in fighting.

May 6 - The worst fighting in nearly two years occurred between Israel and Gaza Strip militants. Repeated salvos of Palestinian mortar fire were met Friday by Israeli airstrikes deep in the coastal enclave, as an escalation between the two sides reached a third day.

§Saudi Arabia

January 2 - 47 people were put to death including a prominent Shiite cleric critical of the government's treatment of the Shiite minority.

"Scores of Shiites took to the streets to protest near Sheikh Nimr’s home in eastern Saudi Arabia, and riot police officers in Bahrain fired tear gas at about 100 protesters who carried Sheikh Nimr’s photograph and chanted against the ruling families of Bahrain and Saudi Arabia, witnesses said."

§Syria

Throughout the year the battle raged between government forces backed by Russia and militants backed by the United States. The city of Allepo was the target most of the year with thousands of civilian casualties. Syrian refugees continued pouring into Europe despite efforts to stem the flow. Complaints of the use of chemical weapons by Syrian government forces were common. The devatation to the country has been horrific and the people that remained were starved in many cases and live in great fear.

December 11 - Syrian troops pulled out of the ancient city of Palmyra as Islamic State militants claimed they had regained full control of the area less than a year after being driven out.

§Turkey

May 5 - Turkey's prime minister stepped down, possibly paving the way for President Recep Tayyip Erdogan to consolidate power amid complaints from opponents over his increasingly hard-line policies.

June 28 - 45 people were killed and 239 others were injured when Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) militants attacked Istanbul’s Atatürk Airport late in the day. They were not able to enter the airport so began their attack at the front with guns and suicide bombs.

July 15 - A coup attempt ended in 754 arrests. Martial law was declared and a curfew was put into place.

§North America

§Canada

May 5 - Alberta A massive wildfire near Fort McMurray in Alberta, Canada, that has grown to five times its initial size spread south, forcing more evacuations after 88,000 people had already evacuated the city. A state of emergency was declared.

§Mexico

January 2 - Gisela Mota, 33, formally took office as the mayor of Temixco She was attacked at her home by four armed gunmen. Around 7:30 a.m., the assassins entered Mota's home, beat her and then shot her in the head. Paramedics arrived at 7:50 a.m. and confirmed she was dead.

§United States

May 4 - It was announced that the number 3 cause of death in the United States is from medical procedures gone wrong. Advocates of better health care would like to get this listed as an actual cause of death so it can be tracked and proper grants and planning can be provided to overcome this preventable cause of death.

May 4 - California passed legislation raising its smoking age from 18 to 21 years old. Governor Jerry Brown signed a number of bills, which also place new restrictions on where people can smoke and the sale of electronic cigarettes.

June 11 - 50 people were shot dead and another 53 were wounded when a 29 year-old man began shooting in the Pulse Nightclub in Orlando Florida. After the shooting the terrorist, a US citizen, Omar Mateen, took hostages. He was killed in an exchange of gunfire with police. The nightclub was a popular gay nightclub. The shooter called the media and pledged allegiance to ISIS, although it is unknown if the group had any foreknowledge of his act. President Obama later anounced that there was no credible evidence that ISIS was directly involved.

June 24 - President Obama declared the 8 acres around the Stonewall Inn a National Monument. The Stonewall Nightclub was the epicenter of the gay rights movement after the Stonewall riots. The Stonewall riots were a series of spontaneous, violent demonstrations by members of the gay (LGBT) community against a police raid that took place in the early morning hours of June 28, 1969, at the Stonewall Inn, located in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City. They are widely considered to constitute the single most important event leading to the gay liberation movement and the modern fight for LGBT rights in the United States

September 9 - Thousands of prisoners in over 24 states began a labor strike, the 45th anniversary of the Attica prison uprising, to demand better conditions and healthcare, the right to unionize and what one organizing group calls an “end to slavery in America.”

§U.S. Business

January 1 - Star Wars: The Force Awakens hits $1.51 billion worldwide.

May 18 - Sports Authority, once the largest sports retailer in the US announced that it would be closing all of its stores.

May 18 - International Geoservices was launched. It is based in Hawaii.

May 28 - Livealonger.life launched as an educational resource for people trying to live longer.

December 19 - Mark Nordlicht, Platinum's founding partner and chief investment officer, David Levy, Platinum's co-chief investment officer, and Uri Landesman, the former president of the firm's signature fund were arrested by the FBI and charged with $1 billion in fraud in a 2012 scheme to defraud investors by overvaluing illiquid assets

§U.S. Politics

By mid-March the field of Presidential hopefuls has narrowed to the likely opposing candidates are Democrat, Hillary Clinton, former first lady, former secretary of state and Republican billionaire entrepreneur Donald Trump.

May 4 - Donald Trump became the presumptive Republican candidate as all other contenders dropped their campaigns. At this point, while Bernie Sanders put up a hard fight, it is unlikely that he will take the Democratic candidacy from Hillary Clinton. Even before either the Democratic or Republicans choose a candidate the race for President of the United States began in earnest on this date.

September 23 - The U.S. Department of the Interior has announced that Native Hawaiians can now choose whether to form a unified government, which could eventually enter into formal government-to-government relations with the U.S.

October 8 - Republican Presidential Nominee, Donald Trump, said he would "never" drop out of the presidential race as a growing number of Republicans have urged him to drop out after sexually aggressive remarks he made in 2005 surfaced a day earlier.

Trump's own running mate, Mike Pence, said he was "offended" by Trump's remarks and canceled plans to represent him at a political event on Saturday. Also, the third-most powerful Senate Republican, John Thune, a member of Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell's inner circle, called on Trump to "withdraw" and let Pence top the Republican ticket.

"I'd never withdraw. I've never withdrawn in my life," Trump told The Washington Post. "No, I'm not quitting. I have tremendous support."

November 9 - Donald J Trump won the electoral college election and became the President Elect of the United States. Hillarly Clinton won the popular vote by more than a million votes.

December 12 - The last sugar factory in Hawaii closes. After 180 years of sugar industry in Hawaii, the last factory closes because it can no longer compete with low-cost sugar from other parts of the world.

§Scandinavia

§Greenland

April 12 - Scientists monitoring the Greenland ice sheet announced that it is experiencing a record-breaking level of melt for so early in the season. The Danish Meteorological Institute reported that although it’s only April, nearly 12 percent of the ice sheet’s surface is covered with a layer of meltwater of a depth of at least a millimeter. It appears to be having an affect on the rotation of the Earth.

§South America

§Brazil

The outbreak of Zika virus that began in April 2015 in Brazil, and subsequently spread to other countries in South America, Central America, and the Caribbean is ongoing. It has caused birth defects such as microcephaly.

April - Brazil is considered to be in the midst of a "soft coup" due to the fact that its president, Luis Inácio Lula da Silva, is in the midst of an impeachment process and members of her political party are being investigated for fraud and financial crimes. She is being accused of alleged misuse of money from public banks to cover gaps in the government budget. In early April, thousands of Rousseff supporters protested in Brazil’s cities, chanting “There’s not going to be a coup.”

April 11 - A committee in Brazil’s lower house voted to recommend impeachment of President Lula.

April 12 - Both Lula and Rousseff accused Brazil’s right-wing parties of conspiring to bring down the PT presidency, calling it a coup attempt. Rousseff accused Vice President Michel Temer of conspiring openly “to destabilize a legitimately elected president.”

Protesters are demanding Rousseff's impeachment, blaming her for the tanking economy and for the plague of corruption, problems reflected in the country's high taxes and dismal public hospitals, schools and other basic services. They say a fresh start with a new president is the only hope for breathing life into an economy that's expected to contract around 4 per cent this year.

May 5 - Justice Teori Zavascki, a Brazilian Supreme Court justice, ruled that Eduardo Cunha, who instigated the impeachment proceedings against President Dilma Rousseff must step down as he faces graft charges. He is expected to appeal the ruling.

Vice President Michel Temer, the person slated to take control of the government from Ms. Rousseff, had his conviction on charges of violating limits on campaign financing upheld making him ineligible to run for elected office for eight years. Mr. Temer will pay a fine and not appeal the ruling.

In the lower house, attention now shifts to Waldir Maranhão, an obscure ally of Mr. Cunha who could take over as speaker. Like Mr. Cunha, Mr. Maranhão is under investigation on graft charges, raising the possibility that the Supreme Court could also order him to step down.

May 12 - After more than 20 hours of debate, Senators voted 55 to 22 in favor of opening a trial of president Dilma Rousseff, forcing her to step aside for up to 180 days.

August 5 - The Summer Olympics started in Rio de Janeiro.

August 31 - President Rousseff is impeached and removed from office.

§Columbia

June 23 - Colombia's government and leftist FARC rebels signed a historic ceasefire deal that brought them close to ending the longest running conflict in the Americas.

September 23 - Colombia's FARC rebel group voted unanimously to approve a peace deal with the government, declaring an end to the five-decade war.

October 2 - In a great surprise, Columbian voters turned down the peace deal with FARC essentially continuing the 52 year war.

§Ecuador

April 16 - 7.8 magnitude quake struck off the Pacific coast killing at least 235 people.

§Peru

June 10 - Keiko Fujimori conceded to rival Pedro Pablo Kuczynski in run-off elections

§Venezuela

September 2 - In Caracas, hundreds of thousands of Venezuelans turned out to protest against President Nicolas Maduro’s government and called for an end to his rule.

The country has been plagued by a deepening economic crisis, corruption, crime, all of which have contributed to a worsening food shortage.

September 3 - In an attempt to improve his image in the media, President Maduro traveled to a region of the country where he won wide support during his last election to give a speech. Instead of support, people showed up to bang empty pots and caused the president to flee the area in fear of his life.

§Southeast Asia

§Thailand

October 13 - Maha Vajiralongkorn, the crown prince of Thailand is expected to succeed his father Bhumibol Adulyadej as King of Thailand following King Bhumibol Adulyadej's death.

§Vietnam

April 7 - Vietnam's parliament approved a new prime minister, former bureaucrat and legislator Nguyen Xuan Phuc.

August 11 - Vietnam has discreetly fortified several of its islands in the disputed South China Sea with new mobile rocket launchers capable of striking China's runways and military installations across the vital trade route

§South Pacific

A powerful El Niño event has caused a strong bleaching of coral in the Great Barrier Reef.

November - It has been determined that a record number of corals have died, meaning that in some places the reef has 70% to 90% of its corals dead.

§Philippines

October 20 - President Duterte, during a meeting in Beijing, announced that the Philippines would now align with China. No details about what this actually means were given. The United States maintains military bases in the Philippines and provides about $150 million a year in financial aid. Millions of Philippine-Americans maintain family relationships between the two countries.

§Ukraine

February 18 - Ukraine's Samopomich party has quit the ruling coalition.

April 10 - Arseniy Yatsenyuk said his resignation would be formally submitted to parliament on April 12, the same day, parliament was expected to vote to elect the current speaker, Volodymyr Groysman, as the new prime minister.

§Religion

September 4 - Mother Theresa is made a saint by the Roman Catholic Church.

§Deaths

  • January 1 - Natalie Cole, Singer. Aged 65
  • January 2 - Gisela Mota, mayor of Temixco, Mexico, age 33
  • January 10 - David Robert Jones aka David Bowie, rock musician, of cancer age 69.
  • January 18 - Glenn Frey of the band, The Eagles - musician, age 67
  • January 26 - Marvin Minsky, father of Artificial Intelligence, age 88 of a cerebral hemorrhage. He co-founded what is now MIT's Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory in the late 1950s.
  • January 28 - Paul Kantner of the music group, Jefferson Airplane, age 74
  • February 19 - Harper Lee, Author of To Kill a Mockingbird, aged 89
  • March 7 - Nancy Reagan, actress, first lady to President Reagan, age 94
  • May 19 - Morley Safer, CBS News man, Vietnam War reporter and 46 year veteran of 60 Minutes, age 84
  • June 3 - Muhammad Ali, three-time world heavyweight boxing champion, aged 74 of Parkinson's Disease.
  • July 2 - Elie Wiesel, Nobel laureate and memory keeper of the Holocaust, aged 87
  • September 2 - Uzbekistan's President Islam Karimov, aged 78 of some type of cardiovascular condition.
  • September 25 - Arnold Palmer, world reknowned golfer, aged 87
  • October 2 - Neville Marriner, British conductor and violinist, aged 92.
  • October 13 - King Bhumibol Adulyadej of Thailand, aged 88
  • October 24 - Qatar's former emir, Sheikh Khalifa bin Hamad al-Thani died on Sunday, aged 84
  • November 25 - Fidel Castro, former revolutionary leader of Cuba, aged 90.
  • December 7 - Robert Wilcox, age 73, friend to so many. History deserves to remember him.
  • December 7 - Gregory Stuart "Greg" Lake, an English bassist, guitarist, singer, songwriter, and producer who gained prominence as a founding member of the progressive rock bands King Crimson and Emerson, Lake & Palmer (ELP)
  • December 8 - John Glenn - First American to orbit the Earth, Senator and Astronaut age 95
  • December 18 - Dr. Henry J. Heimlich, inventor of lifesaving technique for choking victims, age 96
  • December 18 - Zsa Zsa Gabor, actress and Hungarian socialite, age 99. She once said, "I never hated a man enough to give him his diamonds back."
  • December 25 - Vera Rubin, astrophysicist who discovered dark matter. Age 88. She was a pioneer for both astronomy and for women in science.
  • December 27 - Carrie Fisher, actress who played Princess Leia in 'Star Wars,' age 60 from a heart attack.
  • December 28 - Debbie Reynolds, actress and mother of Carrie Fisher, age 84, from a stroke.

§Sources

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