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2014CE

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The year began with terrible unrest in Egypt, the continuing war in Syria, and a number of scientific announcements. One announcement, that is not Earth shattering yet, but of some scientific interest is Stephen Hawkings statement that black holes were his largest error. He is revising his theory that it is impossible for light to escape from a black hole, changing our understanding of these phenomenon.

Closer to home, the announcement of STAP cells, cells that are returned to their embryonic state without being embryonic, is considered a major breakthrough and will lead to a new era in personalized medicine. Stressing cells, a cheap way to create these STAP cells, returns them to an embryonic state early animal models confirm.

Additional studies at the University of Pennsylvania show that stem cells may be able to reverse hair loss.

Hepatitis C-related U.S. deaths reached an all-time high in 2014, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention announced Wednesday, surpassing total combined deaths from 60 other infectious diseases including HIV

The Islamic State also known as ISIS, recaptured a great portion of Iraq and caused the Western World to re-engage militarily in Iraq. Protests in Hong Kong against China's interference in local elections continued for months causing harsh government response near the end of the year. Unrest in the United States occurred due to a series of shootings by police against unarmed youth. In December, according to Bloomberg, "Oil's decline is proving to be the worst since the collapse of the financial system in 2008 and threatening to have the same global impact of falling prices three decades ago that led to the Mexican debt crisis and the end of the Soviet Union."

§Of World Interest

January 14 - Illumina, Inc. announced Tuesday that its new HiSeq X Ten Sequencing System has broken the “sound barrier” of human genomics by enabling the $1,000 genome.

"This platform includes dramatic technology breakthroughs that enable researchers to undertake studies of unprecedented scale by providing the throughput to sequence tens of thousands of human whole genomes in a single year in a single lab," Illumina stated.

"For the first time, it looks like it will be possible to deliver the $1,000 genome, which is tremendously exciting,” said Eric Lander, founding director of the Broad Institute and a professor of biology at MIT. “The HiSeq X Ten should give us the ability to analyze complete genomic information from huge sample populations. Over the next few years, we have an opportunity to learn as much about the genetics of human disease as we have learned in the history of medicine."

March 17 - Gravitational waves have been directly observed. “The swirly B-mode pattern of polarization is a unique signature of gravitational waves,” said Chao-Lin Kuo, of Stanford University and the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, co-leader of the BICEP2 project in Antarctica. “This is the first direct image of gravitational waves across the primordial sky.” The discovery of the century supports the theory of cosmic inflation and the first strong observational evidence of gravitational waves, it could tie in to one of the most perplexing problems in modern quantum physics: What role does gravity play with the quantum world?

Update 2015: “Based on what we know right now… we have no evidence for or against gravitational waves,” says Uroš Seljak, an astrophysicist at the University of California, Berkeley, a co-author of one of the latest studies.

Two independent analyses now suggest that those twisting patterns in the CMB polarization could just as easily be accounted for by dust in the Milky Way Galaxy.

October - Ebola has started appearing in Western countries such as Spain and the US. Fears of further spread are high with estimates of 10,000 new cases a week in West Africa.

December - Time Magazine names "Ebola Fighters" as its Person of the Year.

There are also now only 5 white northern rhinos left in the World. They have been poached to near extinction.

§Africa

§Algeria

April 18 - President Abdelaziz Bouteflika won re-election.

§Burkina Faso

November 1 - Burkina Faso's army backed a military colonel as the country's transitional leader after the resignation of President Blaise Compaore, resolving a power struggle within the armed forces by sidelining the chief of staff.

§Central African Republic

January 10 - Michel Djotodia stepped down as president.

January 25 - The interim government in Central African Republic has chosen a regional banking official, Andre Nzapayeke, to serve as prime minister. A national transitional council already has chosen Bangui Mayor Catherine Samba-Panza to serve as president, making her the country’s first female leader.

§Egypt

January 18 - After a two day referendum results were released showing that 98.1% of voters approve a new constitution.

January 25 - Deadly protests continue in Egypt by the now-outlawed Muslim Brotherhood. Since the approval of the constitution a week ago bombings and protests have rocked Egypt.

January 26 - President Adly Mansour announced that Egypt will hold a presidential vote before parliamentary polls, which could pave the way for the swift election of army chief General Abdel Fattah al-Sisi.

February 24 - Egypt's interim prime minister announced the resignation of his Cabinet, a move that could be designed in part to pave the way for the nation's military chief to leave his defense minister's post to run for president.

February 25 - Ibrahim Mahlab was named as the new Prime Minister. He was housing minister in the previous administration, and will head Egypt's sixth government since the 2011 uprising.

April 28 - In an eight minute trial with no defense arguments, the supreme leader of the Muslim Brotherhood has been sentenced to death with 682 other people.

November 29 It was decided that Hosni Mubarak would not face any murder charges for the killing of Egyptian protesters.

§Guinea

January 15 - Guinean Prime Minister Mohamed Said Fofana handed in the resignation of the entire government after three years in power.

§Libya

March 11 - Libya's parliament ousted the prime minister in a vote of confidence, a move prompted by a crisis when a militia controlling an eastern port defied Tripoli's authority by trying to sell oil.

November 6 - The Libyan Supreme Court invalidate the country's parliament.

§Madagascar

November 22 - 40 people are dead from an outbreak of bubonic plague. Attempts to control the flea population, common vectors for the virus, have been hampered by the fleas resistance to poisons. 2% of those affected have the more dangerous pneuomonic plague which is spread in the air when someone coughs.

§Nigeria

January 7 - The Same Sex Marriage Prohibition Act was signed into law by President Goodluck Jonathan. Violation of the law can carry a 14 year prison term.

March 14 - An attack on Giwa military barracks in Maiduguri city left more than 600 people dead according to satellite imagery.

April 14 - 121 girls were kidnapped from a boarding school in the northern state of Borno. 14 have managed to escape.

November 10 - Seventy-eight students were killed and 45 others were injured when an explosion rocked a government college in northeastern Nigeria.

December 1 - Islamist militants launched a raid on Yobe state capital Damaturu at dawn. They set fire to a mobile police station and shot at an air force jet that was circling their forces and dropping bombs.

Later in Borno state capital Maiduguri, two blasts tore through a crowded market place leaving five dead and 43 wounded.

Yobe, Borno and Adamawa states have been targeted by Boko Haram insurgents who have been fighting for five years to carve an Islamist state out of Africa's top oil producer.

§Sierra Leone

July 31 - Sierra Leone declared a state of emergency and called in troops to quarantine Ebola victims, joining neighboring Liberia in imposing tough controls as the death toll from the worst-ever outbreak of the virus hit 729 victims.

§Tunisia

January 9 - Tunisia's Prime Minister Ali Larayedh has resigned, in accordance with a plan to end months of political deadlock and allowing a caretaker government to oversee this year's elections.

§Uganda

February 24 - Uganda's president signed a law imposing harsh penalties for homosexuality.

August 1 - The Ugandan Constitutional Court rule that the anti-homosexual law was unconstitutional.

§West Africa

June 23 - As of this date there have been 635 confirmed Ebola cases and 399 deaths. The crisis continues.

September 3 - Public health officials sounded the alarm about the growing Ebola outbreak in West Africa, saying it could destabilize countries there, and warned the window is closing to keep it from spreading to other regions.

October 10 - Ebola toll passes 4000 as fears grow worldwide.

§Zambia

October 29 - Zambian president Michael Sata died after an illness.

§Antarctic

January 2 - Fifty-two passengers trapped for more than a week on an icebound Russian research ship were rescued when a Chinese helicopter rescued them.

§Asia

Only 3,200 tigers still exist in the wild compared to 100,000 in 1914.

§China

China overtook the United States as the World's largest economy. This is a position it has held through much of its existence as a country and will most likely remain so into the far future.

§Hong Kong

September 29 - Large pro-democracy protests rocked the city of Hong Kong and met with tear gas by police. Chinese media says that the 'radical activists' are doomed.

October 16 - Pro-democracy protesters continued occupying areas near Hong Kong's government headquarters despite having had police remove barricades from the roads the previous day.

December 1 - Police officers beat up protesters as they try to disperse them outside government headquarters.

§Japan

March 1 - Bitcoin exchange, MtGox, filed for bankruptcy in Tokyo after the Bitcoin exchange fell victim to one of the biggest "bank heists" in history.

Hundreds of thousands of virtual-currency investors have been left with little hope of recovering funds after MtGox — once the dominant platform for trading bitcoins — admitted that nearly 500 million dollars of the virtual currency was stolen.

March 31 - The International Court of Justice ordered a temporary halt to Japan’s Antarctic whaling program claiming it could not show that it was being used for scientific purposes.

§Korea (North and South)

February 11 - First high level meeting held between North and South Korea. Won Tong-yon headed the North Korean delegation and the South Korean counterpart was Kim You-hun. The meeting was held at the Peace House in the village of Panmunjom in the demilitarised zone of Korea.

§North Korea

October 12 - Kim Jong Un has not been seen or heard from since his last public appearance on 3 September. Speculation is that he either has health problems or a power change has occurred. North Korean media has been silent.

§South Korea

April 17 - A ferry hit a rock and sank with 281 people unaccounted for. A great number of them were high school students. The vice-principle of the school accompanying the children committed suicide by hanging himself with a belt. The ship was enroute to Jeju. Fake tweets were allegedly sent by people claiming to be still alive.

§Tibet

January 11 - Fire destroyed the ancient Tibetan quarter of Dukezong, which dates back more than 1,000 years and is known for its preserved cobbled streets, ancient structures and Tibetan culture. Dukezong is part of scenic Shangri-La county in Deqen prefecture.

§Southwest Asia

§Yemen

Sunni militiamen and Hawthi Shiite rebels continue fighting in Sanaa.

September 21 - The Prime Minister resigned following days of violence that have left 160 dead and many homeless.

§Central America

Across Central America, a painful disease that affects the kidneys has killed at least 20,000 people over the past decade and has become the leading cause of deaths in hospitals among men in El Salvador. It is linked to the sugar and mining industry and has many theories as to its cause but none have shown to be definitive.

§Central Asia

§Afghanistan

September 21 - Ashraf Ghani was named Afghanistan's president-elect.

October 27 - U.S. Marines and the British Armed Forces have formally handed over control of one of the biggest military compounds in Afghanistan to Afghan security forces.

§Europe

§EU Politics

May 26 - Victories in European Parliament elections by nationalist, Eurosceptic parties from France and Britain left the European Union facing a policy dilemma.

Anti-establishment parties of the far right and hard left more than doubled their representation, developing a mood of anger with Brussels over austerity, mass unemployment and immigration.

While the center-right and center-left will continue to control more than half of the 751 seats in the EU legislature, they will face an unprecedented challenge from insurgents determined to stop business as usual in the 28-nation bloc.

§France

January 13 - The rivalry between Paris cabbies and Uber turned violent today, as striking taxi drivers began attacking cars booked through Uber and another private-hire service.

May 26 - The anti-EU, anti-immigration National Front party shook France's political landscape by coming out on top in France's voting for European Parliament elections, beating the mainstream conservatives and the governing Socialists.

Hollande, in a televised speech to the nation Monday night, said the result was "painful" and an embarrassment for France, the "founding nation of the European Union, homeland of human rights, country of freedom."

§Germany

January 3 - The driver of an excavator has been killed and eight other people injured after a World War II-era bomb blew up during earthworks in western Germany.

§Great Britain

January 1 - Theives attempted to steal an urn containing the remains of Sigmund Freud and his wife Martha from Golders Green Crematorium in Northwest London

April 10 - A team of scientists at the University of Edinburgh has rebuilt the thymus of an old mouse — the first regeneration of a living organ.

June 7 - The Turing Test for artificial intelligence has been passed for the first time at a competition remembering the 60 year anniversary of the death of the test's creator, Alan Turing. A chatbot, by the name of Eugene Goostman won the competition by convincing a panel of judges more than 30% of the time that he was human. The Eugene software was developed in Saint Petersburg, Russia by Veselov, Eugene Demchenko, and Sergey Ulasen.

§Hungary

April 6 - Polls closed in Hungary at 7 p.m. local time (1800 GMT) on Sunday in parliamentary elections, with the first published exit poll reporting a sizable lead for the incumbent conservative Fidesz party.

§Italy

February 13 - Italian center-left leader Matteo Renzi called on Prime Minister Enrico Letta to step down

February 14 - Prime Minister Enrico Letta of Italy resigned the day after his own Democratic Party voted to replace him with the party’s new leader, Matteo Renzi, the 39-year-old mayor of Florence.

§Spain

June 2 - King Juan Carlos I announced that he would abdicate. Crown Prince Felipe, 46, will succeed his father. The king said he decided it was "time to prepare and pave way so that he who is in better conditions can continue."

September 29 - Mariano Rajoy, the Spanish prime minister, said the vote for Catalonian independence was 'anti-democratic'. The Spanish government has asked the country's constitutional court to block Catalonia's November referendum.

§Turkey

May 13 - A mine accident in Soma, Turkey killed hundreds

§United Kingdom

September 5 - At a meeting of World leaders in Wales the United States said it had created a "core coalition" to battle Islamic State militants in Iraq, calling for broad support from allies and partners around the world but ruling out committing ground forces.

September 18 - Scotland had a referendum to decide if they wanted to remain part of the UK or be independent. The "NO" vote won and Scotland will remain part of the UK as it has been for the last 3 centuries.

§Vatican

June 5 - Pope Francis fired the five-man board of the Vatican's financial watchdog. He then named experts from Switzerland, Singapore, the United States and Italy to replace them on the board of the Financial Information Authority (AIF), the Holy See's internal regulatory office. The new board includes a woman for the first time.

§India

January 18 - In Mumbai a pre-dawn stampede killed 18 people and injured at least 40 others, as tens of thousands of people gathered to mourn the death of Muslim spiritual leader Syedna Mohammed Burhanuddinwho who died at the age of 102.

May 16 - India's opposition leader, Narendra Modi, swept into power as prime minister-elect, as voters delivered a crushing verdict on the corruption scandals and flagging economic growth that have plagued their country in recent years.

§Middle East

§Iraq

January 4 - Al-Qaeda militants have seized much of Fallujah, a key city in western Iraq, engaging Iraqi army forces in pitched battles there in a brazen challenge to Iraq's central government.

January 24 - Fallujah has fallen to Al-Queda.

June - A group known as Isis has begun taking Iraq from the North taking Mosul and other cities.

June 14 - Iran has sent troops to help Iraq fight Isis and Iraq religious leaders have called on everyone who can carry a weapon to assist in fighting Isis. The US has begun considering air options to assist the Iraqi government in its fight against ISIS.

June 15 - Explosions rocked Baghdad as insurgent fighters enter the capital The US evacuated its embassy there.

August 11 - Haider al-Abadi has taken over as Prime Minister. The Shiite politician replaced Nouri al-Maliki after 8 years in office.

August 19 - American captive, James Foley was beheaded by what was likely a British ISIS insurgent in Iraq. The video sparked international outrage and an increase in American efforts to stop the Islamic State in both Iraq and Syria.

August 22 - More than 50 Sunni worshipers were killed during a militant raid on a mosque in central Iraq in an attack that security officials said appeared to be revenge for a number of deadly bombings earlier in the day.

§Israel

July 15 - Gaza militants have fired more than 1,100 rockets toward Israel in the fighting. Mostly thanks to its "Iron Dome" defence system, no Israelis were killed till Tuesday.

July 31 - Netanyahu vows to complete Gaza tunnels destruction as offense into Gaza continues. The U.N. High Commissioner for Human Rights, Navi Pillay, says the targeting of civilian infrastructure or the use of civilian structures for military purposes violate international humanitarian law and international human rights law. This on the heels of Israel's continued targeting of schools and hospitals in Gaza, killing many children.

August - Several cease fires have been successful at slowing violence in the Gaza region. Tensions remain high.

November 2 - Moshe Feiglin walked on the holiest site in Judaism and posed for photos in front of the Dome of the Rock, a revered Muslim shrine that rests where many believe the Jewish Temple once stood. In doing so the Israeli member of parliament fueled growing Muslim-Jewish tensions around Jerusalem's Temple Mount, which in the past week saw an assassination attempt against a right-wing rabbi and Palestinian leader Mahmoud Abbas call Israel's decision to temporarily close the site a "declaration of war."

§Palestine

April 23 - Leaders of the Palestine Liberation Organization joined hands with their rivals from Hamas for the first time since their bloody separation 7 years prior. This ended peace talks with Israel and drew ire from the United States. It seems as though the two factions no longer believed that Israel, which has continued its building program along the West Bank, would not give them what they wanted.

June 2 - The new Palestinian government in the West Bank city of Ramallah, will be led by Prime Minister Rami Hamdallah. It was sworn in on June 2nd.

July 15 - Nearly 200 Palestinians have been killed in strikes in Gaza since Israel launched the campaign over a week ago to stop rocket fire at its citizens.

July 17-18 - Israel begins ground offensive. The Israeli military has attacked what it says were around 150 targets in Gaza when it moved tanks, gunboats and around 50,000 Israeli soldiers into the Palestinian enclave. Israel says its offensive is aimed at destroying tunnels used by Palestinian militants to move supplies and to launch attacks on Israel. The Israeli military campaign was launched after 10 days of aerial strikes failed to halt rocket attacks on Israeli cities from Gaza.

§Lebanon

February 15 - After a 10 month deadlock Lebanon formed a government. The Prime Minister is Tammam Salam.

§Syria

The civil war in Syria continues from the previous year.

July 16 - Syrian President Bashar al-Assad declared victory over those who had sought to overthrow him as he embarked on a third term in office, buoyed by a growing extremist threat in the region that has helped cement his hold on power.

August 22 - Latest figures show that at least 191,000 people have died in the Syrian civil war.

December 31 - Syria's war killed 76021 in 2014

§North America

§Canada

January 11 - A massive starfish die-off due to a yet undefined wasting disease which began in September of 2013 has completely wiped out hundreds of thousands of starfish.

§Mexico

February 22 - Joaquin “El Chapo” Guzman, the brutal leader of the Sinaloa Mexican cartel was arrested when marines stormed a condominium in the resort city of Mazatlan.

September 26 - Mexico's biggest protests in years began after an attack on students by corrupt police and drug cartel gunmen. Demands have widened to include the resignation of President Enrique Peña Nieto. Protesters also rage against pervasive corruption, violence and disappearances suffered during years of narco bloodshed. The movement has even led to solidarity rallies in the United States.

December 1 - In Mexico City tens of thousands marched downtown, with a few hundred smashing the windows of banks and shops. In southern Oaxaca state, protesters blockaded the entrance to an oil refinery. In Ciudad Juarez, demonstrators took over a cross-border bridge, letting cars enter from the United States toll free. In Guerrero state, rioters burned four police cars.

§United States

California Blue Whale populations have returned to pre-whaling numbers, about 2,200, after a ban on whaling allowed the whales to recover. About 11 blue whales are still lost a year due to being hit by ships.

January 4 - The mid-west and east coast of the United States has seen record low temperatures after a polar vortex created extreme winter storm conditions.

January 14 - It was announced that the National Security Agency has placed software on nearly 100,000 computers around the world that allows the U.S. to conduct surveillance on those machines using radio frequency technology.

February 14 - Norfolk-based federal Judge Arenda Wright Allen found Virginia’s laws restricting marriage to one man and one woman unconstitutional on the grounds that they deny due process and equal protection rights.

February 16 - "Craigslist Killer" Miranda Barbour, facing the death penalty with her husband Elytte claimed claimed to have slain more than 20 more people across the country as part of her involvement in a bloodthirsty satanic cult.

The couple are facing the death penalty for stabbing Troy LaFerrara to death on November 11th in what investigators called a "thrill kill" to mark the couple's three-week wedding anniversary.

April 9 - Snowpack levels are released in the Western United States and are reported as 10% of normal, meaning the record drought of the Western United States will worsen as the dry season approaches.

April 25 - The U.S. Drought Monitor (USDM) reported that for the first time in the history of the monitoring organization California was now experiencing drought conditions acrosss 100% of the State as Southeastern California entered moderate drought conditions.

August 9 - Michael Brown, an unarmed black teen was shot dead by Darren Wilson, a white policeman in Ferguson, Mo. Violent protests followed until the National Guard was called in to end the protests.

September 16 - The United States is at war with the Islamic State

October 31 - The Virgin Galactic suborbital vehicle SpaceShipTwo crashed over Mojave during a test flight. The crash killed 39-year-old co-pilot Michael Tyner Alsbury and seriously injured 43-year-old pilot Peter Siebold, who parachuted to safety.

November 20 - President Obama took executive action on immigration allowing nearly 5 million undocumented immigrants to avoid deportation.

November 24 - A grand jury fails to bring charges against police officer Darren Wilson after he shot teen, Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri. Two thousand national guard troops along with police were sent to quell an uprising.

§U.S. Business

January 13 - Google buys Nest for $3.2 billion. Nest is a maker of smart thermostats and smoke and carbon-monoxide detectors. The recent CES show in Las Vegas highlighted advances in the "Internet of Things."

January 23 - senator Edward Markey calls for fraud investigation into Herbalife

June 13 - Electric automaker Tesla Motors Inc announced on Thursday it was giving up its patents to "the open source movement," to help spur electric vehicle technology.

July 18 - Microsoft announces that 18,000 employees will be laid off, the largest Microsoft layoff ever. It represents just over 15% of its workforce.

September 17 - NASA has awarded Boeing and SpaceX with contracts worth a combined $6.8 billion to fly astronauts to the International Space Station (ISS).

December 9 - The Senate Intelligence Committee released a damning report on the use of torture by the CIA.

December 10 - The FAA gave the first approval ever to fly commercial drones to conduct aerial surveys, monitor construction sites and inspect oil flare stacks to Trimble Navigation Limited (TRMB), VDOS Global, Clayco Inc. and Woolpert Inc.

§U.S. Religion

November 11 - Mormon leaders acknowledged for the first time that the church’s founder and prophet, Joseph Smith, portrayed in church materials as a loyal partner to his loving spouse Emma, took as many as 40 wives, some already married and one only 14 years old. Smith probably did not have sexual relations with all of his wives, because some were “sealed” to him only for the next life, according to the essays posted by the church. But for his first wife, Emma, polygamy was "an excruciating ordeal."

§Southeast Asia

March 8 - Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 goes missing and a massive global effort is launched to find the plane or debris. After several weeks of effort no debris or evidence is found. Speculation on the fate of the plane and 12 crew members and 227 passengers is varied.

§Nepal

April 18 - 12 Sherpa died in an avalanche on Mount Everst.

§Thailand

January 12 - Anti-election protestors attempt to shut down Bangkok. The protesters are driven by a hatred of Ms. Yingluck and her brother, Thaksin Shinawatra, a billionaire tycoon and former prime minister who is in self-exile overseas but wields great influence over the government. The protesters are passionately opposed to the family’s dominance in the country and believe that the elections in February will cement its hold on the political system.

January 26 - Suthin Thararin, a protest leader for the People's Democratic Reform Committee (PDRC), was killed in front of Sri Eiam Temple in Bangkok.

May 19 - The military declared martial law in a de-facto coup. The Royal Army said the move was not a coup but an effort "to restore peace and order" with supporters and opponents of the government seemingly headed for a showdown within days.

May 22 - The Royal Army completed a coup. Gen. Prayuth Chan-ocha announces on national television that the commission which imposed martial law Tuesday would now take control of the country's administration.

§Russia

March 1 - Russia's upper house of parliament voted unanimously to approve sending Russian military forces into Ukraine, amid mounting tensions in the country's Crimea region

March 7 - Russia signals that it plans to annex Crimea from the Ukraine.

March 18 - In his address to the Federal Council, President Vladimir V. Putin asks it to ratify the annexation of Crimea and Sevastopol to Russia. Defying Ukrainian protests and Western sanctions, Russian President Vladimir Putin signed a treaty making Crimea part of Russia again but said he did not plan to seize any other regions of Ukraine.

§Baltic States

§Ukraine

January 23 - The Ukrainian opposition announced that it had reached agreement with President Viktor Yanukovich on a partial compromise aimed at ending the country's worst political crisis since the breakup of the Soviet Union

January 28 - Prime minister Azarof resigns amid unrest. Parliament revokes anti-protest laws.

February 16 - Ukrainian protesters ended their occupation of City Hall in Kiev, and then quickly threatened to take it back if the authorities did not immediately fulfill a pledge to drop all criminal charges against political activists.

The departure from the building in the capital after more than two months eased temporarily tensions in the standoff between protesters and President Viktor F. Yanukovych, who set off the country’s political crisis in November by spurning a trade deal with the European Union and tilting Ukraine, a former Soviet republic of 46 million people, toward Russia instead.

February 18 - Riot Police Move on Kiev (Kyiv) Protesters' Camp After 9 Die in Clashes

February 19 - Kyiv police in riot gear sought to push demonstrators away from the city's main square following deadly clashes between police and protesters that left at least 25 people dead and hundreds injured and raised fears of a civil war.

February 21 - Yielding to hard Western pressure, Ukraine’s embattled President Viktor Yanukovych has agreed to call an early presidential election, cede key powers to Parliament and form a coalition caretaker government. Ukrainian and Russian analysts described Mr Yanukovych’s decision as total surrender.

February 22 - Oleksandr Turchynov is the new president.

February 23 - New President Oleksandr Turchynov has said the country will focus on closer integration with the EU

February 28 - A Ukraine official said Russian aircraft carrying around 2,000 Russian troops landed at a military air base near the regional capital of Ukraine's Crimea region, Agence France Presse reported , citing local television. "Thirteen Russian aircraft landed at the airport of Gvardeyskoye (near Simferopol) with 150 people in each one," said Sergiy Kunitsyn, the Ukraine president's special representative in Crimea, in an interview with the local ATR channel. He described the development as an "armed invasion."

March 2 - Ukrainian interim Prime Minister Arseniy Yatsenyuk said. "This is a red alert. This is not a threat. This is actually a declaration of war to my country,"

Speaking in a televised address from the parliament building in the capital, Kiev, he called on Russian President Vladimir Putin to "pull back his military and stick to the international obligations."

March 6 - Crimea has voted to return to Russia, increasing East-West tensions over the region and over the sovereignty of Ukraine.

April 9 - Separatists in Eastern Ukraine have erected barricades. The government has warned that the issue will be resolved in 48 hours with either force or talks. Some Eastern Ukrainians want this part of the country to follow in the footsteps of the Crimea and return to Russian power.

April 13 - Ukraine's president says a full-scale operation involving the army will be launched in the east after pro-Russian militants seized government buildings.

May 25 - Chocolate tycoon Petro Poro­shenko achieved a commanding victory in the Ukraine presidential election, giving the pro-European billionaire a chance to resolve a conflict that has created the greatest tensions between the West and Russia since the Cold War.

June 3 - The Ukraine military launched an offensive against the rebels in the Eastern part of the country.

July 17 - A Malaysian Airliner carrying 292 people was shot down by an apparent surface to air missile. Half of the occupants were from the Netherlands. The missile was fired from the rebel-held area of Eastern Ukraine. The Boeing 777 was en route from Amsterdam to Kuala Lumpur. A preliminary intelligence assessment indicated that Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 was likely shot down by pro-Russian separatists with an SA-11 missile. The SA-11 is an early version of the Buk antiaircraft system that was previously identified by Ukrainian authorities as the weapon used to bring down the airliner.

July- September - Pro-Russian rebels continued their fight in Eastern Ukraine. The largely Russian-speaking community is fighting for some form of statehood that would allow them to secede from the Ukraine and form closer ties to Russia, while Western Ukraine seeks closer ties to Europe and NATO.

September 5 - The Ukraine government signed a deal with pro-Russian separatist rebels. Igor Plotnitsky, the insurgent leader for the Luhansk region, told reporters "this doesn't mean that our course for secession is over."

§Scandinavia

§Denmark

January 30 - Six Ministers Quit in Goldman Spat

Helle Thorning-Schmidt, Danish Prime Minister, said she will appoint a new Cabinet "soon" to replace the six ministers who walked out over the dispute. The coalition fell apart after pushing a $1.5 billion sale of an 18 percent stake in Dong to Goldman.

§South America

§Argentina

July 30 - Argentina defaulted on its $29 billion debt.

August 1 - A US court ruled that the default did not "extinguish or reduce" the South American country's debt obligations.

§Brazil

May 21 - The Brazilian government, World Wildlife Fund (WWF) and partners announced the creation of a $215 million fund to ensure long-term protection of the world's largest network of protected areas — 150 million acres of the Brazilian Amazon rainforest.

July 8 - Brazil lost to Germany 7-1 in the 2014 World Cup semi-final match held in Bela Horizonte.

October 27 - President Dilma Rousseff's narrow re-election victory met with cold reality as Brazil's financial markets tumbled.

§Columbia

June 15 - Juan Manuel Santos is re-elected President.

§Ecuador

April 6 - A powerful explosion in Ecuador's Tungurahua volcano kicked off an eruption lasting five minutes with emissions of pulverised incandescent rock and a column of ash that rose 10 km above the crater.

§Peru

November 24 - Peru's environmental police began investigating the deaths of around 500 dead sea lions discovered decomposing on a beach 250 miles north of Lima.

§Venezuela

The country was paralyzed by deadly riots earlier in the year after police repressed protests about spiraling inflation, shortages of consumer goods and worsening crime.

February 12 - Three people were shot dead in the worst violence since President Maduro's disputed election in 2013.

February 15 - Venezuelan police fired teargas and turned water cannons on stone-throwing protesters to stop them from blocking a Caracas highway in a fourth day of sporadic unrest against President Nicolas Maduro's government.

February 17 - Venezuelan security forces raided the headquarters of an opposition party accused of fomenting nearly a week of violent protests as the country expelled three U.S. diplomats on charges of conspiring with demonstrators.

October 16 - Venezuela is given a UN Security Council seat.

§South Pacific

February 14 - The powerful eruption of Mount Kelud on Indonesia’s Java island led to the deaths of at least three people and forced the evacuation of more than 100,000 people from the area.

§Space

January 8 - Earth-based exoplanet hunter, the Gemini Planet Imager, has released the results of its first observation run, a direct image of Beta Pictoris b.

§South Pacific

§Philippines

March 27 - The Philippine government signed a peace accord with the Moro Islamic Liberation Front after 40 years of conflict.

§Deaths

  • January 3 - Phil Everly, 1950s Rock 'n Roll pioneer aged 74 from complications due to lifelong smoking.
  • January 7 - Monica Spear, actress and former Miss Venezuela
  • January 10 - Franklin McCain, Civil Rights protester, one of the "Greensboro Four" in 1960 CE, age 73
  • January 11 - Former Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon, age 85, from complications associated with a massive stroke he suffered eight years prior.
  • January 16 - Namaste, the white tiger at the Hilo Zoo at the age of 15
  • January 20 - Claudio Abbado, Italian Music Conductor, age 80
  • February 2 - Philip Seymour Hoffman, American Actor, age 46
  • February 10 - Shirley Temple Black, American Actress and Politician, age 85
  • February 11 - Renee Grossman Gowins, biological mother of Ted Coombs
  • February 12 - Sid Caesar, American Actor and Comedian, age 91
  • February 24 - Maria Von Trapp - Austrian singer immortalized in the musical, "Sound of Music", age 99
  • April 6 - Mickey Rooney - American Actor, age 93
  • April 17 - Garcia Marquez, Nobel winner, master of magical realism, age 87
  • May 28 - Maya Angelou, author and civil rights leader, age 86
  • June 15 Casey Kasem - Radio music "American Top 40" star, age 82
  • July 22 - Richard (Dick) Pelletier, positive futurist, age 83.
  • August 11 - Robin Williams, comedian, actor age 63 of Suicide
  • October 25 - Jack Bruce, musician with the rock group Cream, age 71 of natural causes.
  • November 19 - Mike Nichols, German-born American film and theatre director, age 83. 3rd cousin of Albert Einstein and husband of Diane Sawyer.
  • November 28 - Roberto Gómez Bolaños, Mexican comedian, age 85. He is best known as 'Chespirito'.
  • December - Aotlcp-Awak, age 5,800, a giant Samauma tree, World's oldest tree illegally cut in the Peruvian rainforest. Between 1991 and 2014, the total area of forest lost in the Amazon has more than tripled, with most of the lost forest becoming pasture for cattle.

§Sources

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