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200BCE

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§Of World Interest

World population estimates range between 150 and 231 million people.

The first good measurement of the distance between Earth and the Sun is made by Eratosthenes (approximate date). By studying lunar eclipses, his result is roughly 150 000 000 km. The currently accepted value is 149 597 870 691 ± 30 metres.

§Africa

§Madagascar

The first human colonization began about this time and continued until 500 CE. Colonists arrived by outrigger canoes from the Sunda islands.

§Central America

§Modern Belize

Archeological investigations show that Altun Ha was occupied by 200 BCE.

§Seleucid Empire

Antiochus III's forces continue their invasion of Coele Syria and Palestine.

§Greece

When the Greek city of Sparta was at the height of its power there were 20 slaves for every citizen.

Philip V of Macedon's fleet defeat the Rhodians at Lade. His forces then advance into Pergamum, plundering Pergamese territory and attacking cities in Caria.

The Acarnanians, with Macedonian support, invade Attica, causing Athens, which has previously maintained its neutrality, to seek help from the enemies of Philip. Attalus I of Pergamum, who is with his fleet at Aegina, receives an embassy from Athens asking him to come to the city for consultations. After he is told that Roman ambassadors are also in Athens, Attalus goes there in haste.

The Roman ambassador to Greece, Syria, and Egypt, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus delivers an ultimatum to Philip V warning Macedonia not to make war on any Greek state. Philip decides to reject the Roman ultimatum and the Romans declare war on Macedon, thus starting the Second Macedonian War.

The Roman consul, Publius Sulpicius Galba Maximus, asks Attalus I and his fleet to meet up with the Roman fleet off the Greek Aegean coast and they conduct a naval campaign against Philip V, harassing Macedonian possessions in and along the Aegean.

§Roman Republic

One of the most important inventions around this time, concrete, led to the building of some of Rome's greatest building achievements. Aqueducts, for example, allowed for clean, fresh, water to be fed into Rome, allowing it to grow larger and healthier than any other large city in the World until the 19th century.

Roman forces defeat the Gauls of Cisalpine Gaul in the Battle of Cremona.

The bacchanalia are wild and mystic festivals of the Roman god Bacchus which are introduced into Rome from lower Italy by way of Etruria (approximate date).

§Bactria

Euthydemus I of the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom dies and is succeeded by his son Demetrius I of Bactria (approximate date).

§South America

The city of Tiwanaku is founded as a village near Lake Titicaca in modern Bolivia (approximate date).

§China

Ruled by Emperor Gaozu of Han

The construction of the Wei-Yang Palace in the Han Dynasty capital (Chang'an) begins.

The Hsiung-nu appear on the western borders of China.

The Great Wall of China is completed.

§Middle East

§Egypt

The first documented food fight takes place between Greek Mathematician Archimedes, who invented the catapult, and Egyptian King Ptolemy III. At a dinner the king insisted that he found the geometry and physics of Archimedes's design lacking in principle. Archimedes, so the story goes, says he'll demonstrate the shortest distance between two points and starts pelting the king with olives. Ptolemy's guards respond with fresh fruit, forcing Archimedes to surrender.

§Israel

Completion of the Septuagint Greek Manuscripts which contain The 39 Old Testament Books and 14 Apocrypha Books.

§Tunisia (Carthage)

Hannibal was still only 43 and soon showed that he could be a statesman as well as a soldier. Following the conclusion of a peace that left Carthage stripped of its formerly mighty empire, Hannibal prepared to take a back seat for a time. However, the blatant corruption of the oligarchy gave Hannibal a chance of a come back and he was elected as suffet, or chief magistrate. The office had become rather insignificant, but Hannibal restored its power and authority. The oligarchy, always jealous of him, had even charged him with having betrayed the interests of his country while in Italy, for neglecting to take Rome when he might have done so. So effectively did Hannibal reform abuses that the heavy tribute imposed by Rome could be paid by installments without additional and extraordinary taxation. He also reformed the Hundred and Four, stipulating that its membership be chosen by direct election rather than co-option. He also used citizen support to change the term of office in the Hundred and Four from life to a year with a term limit of two years.

§North America

It was about this time that the Mount St. Helens summit cone began rising. The summit cone was later destroyed in 1980 CE.

§South Pacific

§Tahiti

The first Tahitians would have arrived in about 200 BCE, after a long migration from South East Asia or Indonesia, via the Fijian, Samoan and Tongan Archipelagos. This hypothesis of an emigration from South East Asia is supported by a number of linguistic, biological and archaeological proofs. For example, the languages of Fiji and Polynesia all belong to the same Oceanic sub-group, Fijian-Polynesian, which itself forms part of the great family of the Austronesian Languages.

§Births

  • Jia Yi, Chinese statesman and poet (d. 169 BC)

§Deaths

  • Euthydemus I, King of the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom from 223 BC (approximate date)

§Sources

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