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1948CE

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§Of World Interest

Warner Brothers showed the first color newsreel on January 5th of the Tournament of Roses Parade and the Rose Bowl.

Heart attacks were at an all-time high. In response, the government sent the surgeon general to a small town in Massachusetts and created the Framingham study. It studied the population and they uncovered that the higher the level of cholesterol the higher the incidence of heart attack. They found plaque and fat causing artery clogging. So they claimed that fat and cholesterol were bad. This has been the thinking ever since. Yet, in the early 2000's it was uncovered that dietary fat was not the problem. The Framingham dietary suggestions actually led to higher incidence of heart disease.

Thomas Jukes found through experimentation that feeding chickens an antibiotic known as chlortetracycline that they would gain weight. The antibiotic was given not to fight infection, but simply because of its action in causing the chickens to grow heavier.

§Asia

§Democratic People's Republic of Korea

August 15 - The Republic of Korea is established.

September 9 - The Democratic People's Republic of Korea is formally declared, with Kim Il-sung as prime minister.

§Europe

On January 22nd, British foreign secretary Bevin proposed the formation of a Western Union between Britain, France and the Benelux countries to stand up against the Soviet Union. The Treaty of Brussels was signed March 17th as a consequence, a predecessor to NATO.

§Faroe Islands

The Faroe Islands, a group of islands in Northern Europe, between the Norwegian Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, about halfway from Iceland to Norway, became an autonomous region of the Kingdom of Denmark.

§Europe

§France

September 5 - Robert Schuman becomes Prime Minister of France.

§Germany

Nuremberg trials of Nazi war criminals continue.

The deutsche mark, is introduced in the occupied western zones of Germany, before there was a West German flag, national anthem or even constitution. It became a symbol of the country's postwar economic miracle amid the ashes of World War II and one of the few in which Germans could comfortably express national pride.

§Great Britain

§British Industry

On January 1st the UK railways were nationalized to form British Railways.

§Italy

January 1st is the first day of the Italian republican constitution.

§Netherlands

September 4 - Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands abdicates for health reasons.

September 6 - Juliana becomes Queen of the Netherlands.

§India

On January 30, 1948, on his way to a prayer meeting, Gandhi was shot and killed in Birla House, New Delhi, by Nathuram Godse. Godse was a Hindu radical with links to the extremist Hindu Mahasabha, who held Gandhi responsible for weakening India by insisting upon a payment to Pakistan. Gandhi's memorial (or Samādhi) at Rāj Ghāt, New Delhi, bears the epigraph, (Devanagiri: हे ! राम or, Hé Rām), which may be translated as "Oh God". These are widely believed to be Gandhi's last words after he was shot, though the veracity of this statement has been disputed by many. Jawaharlal Nehru addressed the nation through radio:

"Friends and comrades, the light has gone out of our lives, and there is darkness everywhere, and I do not quite know what to tell you or how to say it. Our beloved leader, Bapu as we called him, the father of the nation, is no more. Perhaps I am wrong to say that; nevertheless, we will not see him again, as we have seen him for these many years, we will not run to him for advice or seek solace from him, and that is a terrible blow, not only for me, but for millions and millions in this country."

According to his wish, the majority of Gandhi's ashes were immersed in all the major rivers of the world such as The Nile, Volga, Thames, etc. Also, a small portion was sent to Paramahansa Yogananda from Dr. V.M. Nawle, (a publisher and journalist from Poona, India) encased in a brass & silver coffer. The ashes were then enshrined at the Mahatma Gandhi World Peace Memorial in the Self-Realization Fellowship Lake Shrine within a thousand-year-old stone sarcophagus from China.

§Middle East

§Israel

On January 1st, Arab militants laid siege to the Jewish Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem.

May 14 - Israel independence. the day before the British Mandate was due to expire. David Ben-Gurion, the Executive Head of the World Zionist Organization and the chairman of the Jewish Agency for Palestine, declared the establishment of a Jewish state in Eretz-Israel, to be known as the State of Israel.

Arab Israeli War

The War commenced on the termination of the Mandate on 15 May 1948 following a previous phase of war of 1947–1948 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine, commenced in Arab rejection of the 1947 United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine (UN General Assembly Resolution 181) that would have created an Arab state and a Jewish state. The War was fought mostly on the territory of the British Mandate of Palestine, and for a short time also on the Sinai Peninsula.

December 31 - 1948 Arab-Israeli War: Israeli troops drive the Egyptians from Negev.

§North America

§Canada

November 15 - Louis Stephen St. Laurent becomes Canada's 12th prime minister.

§Cuba

Fulgencio Batista was elected to the Senate in absentia and returned to Cuba. He decided to run for president and was given permission by President Grau, whereupon he formed the Unitarian Action Party.

§United States

January 1 - The latest New Jersey State Constitution goes into effect.

January 5 - Warner Brothers shows the first color newsreel (Tournament of Roses Parade and the Rose Bowl).

March 17 - The Hells Angels motorcycle gang is founded in California.

May 30 - A dike along the Columbia River breaks, obliterating Vanport, Oregon within minutes: 15 people die and tens of thousands are left homeless.

June 3 - The Palomar Observatory telescope is finished in California.

June 17 - A Douglas DC-6 carrying United Air Lines Flight 624 crashes near Mount Carmel, Pennsylvania, killing all 43 people on board.

July 31 - At Idlewild Field in New York, New York International Airport (later renamed John F. Kennedy International Airport) is dedicated.

August 1 - The U.S. Air Force Office of Special Investigations is founded.

October 26 - Killer smog settles into Donora, Pennsylvania.

Dr. Alfred Kinsey published Sexual Behavior in the Human Male revealing to the public that homosexuality is far more widespread than was commonly believed.

Miran Thompson and Sam Shockley were executed in the gas chamber at San Quentin on December 3, 1948 for their role in the Battle of Alcatraz 1946 CE

§U.S. Industry

June 26 - William Shockley files the original patent for the grown junction transistor, the first bipolar junction transistor.

A radio repairman named Leo Fender took a piece of ash, bolted on a length of maple and attached an electronic transducer to it creating the electric guitar.

§U.S. Politics

April 3 - President Harry Truman signs the Marshall Plan, which authorizes $5 billion in aid for 16 countries.

May 26 - The U.S. Congress passes Public Law 557, which permanently establishes the Civil Air Patrol as the auxiliary of the United States Air Force.

June 20 - The U.S. Congress recesses for the remainder of 1948, after an overtime session closes at 7:00 a.m. D.C. time (to be shortly interrupted by Truman's recall from Congressional recess for July 20, 1948).

July 20 - Cold War: President Harry S. Truman issues the second peacetime military draft in the United States, amid increasing tensions with the Soviet Union (the first peacetime draft occurred in 1940 under President Roosevelt).

July 26 - U.S. President Truman signs Executive Order 9981, ending racial segregation in the United States Armed Forces.

August 25 - The House Un-American Activities Committee holds its first-ever televised congressional hearing, featuring "Confrontation Day" between Whittaker Chambers and Alger Hiss.

November 2 - United States presidential election, 1948: Democratic incumbent Harry S. Truman defeats Republican Thomas E. Dewey and 'Dixiecrat' Strom Thurmond.

§South East Asia

§Burma (Modern Myanmar)

On January 4rth, Burma achieved independence from the United Kingdom as the "Union of Burma".

§Vietnam

France started looking for means of opposing the Việt Minh politically, with an alternative government in Saigon. They began negotiations with the former Vietnamese emperor Bảo Đại to lead an "autonomous" government within the French Union of nations, the State of Vietnam. Two years before, the French had refused Hồ's proposal of a similar status (albeit with some restrictions on French power and the latter's eventual withdrawal from Vietnam); however, they were willing to give it to Bảo Ðại as he had freely collaborated with French rule of Vietnam in the past and was in no position to seriously negotiate or impose demands (Bảo Ðại had no military of his own, but soon he would have one).

§South Pacific

§Hawaiian Islands

The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center was established

§Indonesia

January 17th a truce was instigated between nationalist Indonesian and Dutch troops in Java.

§New Zealand

May - Mt Ruapehu and Mt Ngauruhoe, both in New Zealand, erupted simultaneously.

§Space

June 11 - The first monkey astronaut, Albert I, is launched into space from White Sands, New Mexico.

§Deaths

  • November 24 - Anna Jarvis, organizer of first Mother's Day celebration.
  • Undated - Elizabeth Maggie Phillips - The original inventor of the Monopoly game patented and published as the Landlord's Game.

§Ongoing

First Indochina War

§Sources

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