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1932CE

<< 1931 CE | 1931-1940 CE | 1933 CE >>

§Africa

§Abyssinia

April 17 – Haile Selassie announces an anti-slavery law in Abyssinia.

§Libya

January 24 – Marshal Pietro Badoglio declares the end of Libyan resistance.

§Upper Volta

On September 5th, Upper Volta was broken apart, with parts being administered by the colonies of Côte d’Ivoire, French Sudan (present day Mali), and Niger only to be reconstituted in 1947.

§Asia

§China

January 28 – Japan occupies Shanghai.

January 31 – Japanese warships arrive in Nanking.

February 2 - The League of Nations again recommends negotiations between the Republic of China and Japan.

February 4 - Japan occupies Harbin, China.

February 18 – Japan declares Manzhouguo (Japanese name for Manchuria) formally independent from China.

March 1 - Japan proclaims Manchuria an independent state and installs Puyi as puppet emperor.

March 18 – Peace negotiations between China and Japan begin.

December 25 – An earthquake in the Kansu Province in China kills 70,000.

§Japan

May 15 – Japanese troops leave Shanghai; the May 15 Incident, the assassination of Japanese prime minister Tsuyoshi Inukai, occurs.

December 12 – Japan and the Soviet Union reform their diplomatic connections.

§Central America

§El Salvador

January 22– The 1932 Salvadoran peasant uprising begins, it is surpressed by the government of Maximiliano Hernández Martínez. Rebels led by the communist party and Agustín Farabundo Martí, Mario Zapata and Alfonso Luna, attacked government forces with support that was largely from Pipil Indians in the western part of El Salvador. Within three days, they had succeeded in taking control of several towns, disrupting supply lines to many of the country’s towns and villages, and attacking a military garrison. With their superior training and technology, the government troops needed only a few days to defeat the rebels. While the rebels killed fewer than 100 people, the military retaliated with great force. Promising an open discussion and pardons for those involved in the uprising, the government invited them into a large public square where the army killed between 10,000 and 40,000 peasants, including Martí.

In western El Salvador hundreds of peasants rose against the new, corrupt government of Martinez, but this was crushed by the Army. Martinez started a genocide against his own population. Since most of the people that participated in the uprising were of indigenous origin, anyone that looked or dressed like a native or spoke Nahuatl was killed by the army. The number massacred is estimated at 30,000. A saying that circulated around the time of the Matanza: "President Martinez was such a good president that he was able to give every Salvadoran a house." (La Matanza by Thomas Anderson). The proportion of the 30,000 Salvadorans killed compared to the population of the actual U.S. population would be 60 million Americans. However, the political ideology of the Martinez administration was fascism. He admired Hitler and did not allow any Jews, Palestinians or black people to enter the country.

The towns of Nahuizalco, Juayua, Apaneca and Izalco were assaulted by the army. Feliciano Ama, an Indian leader, was hanged and this event was shown on postage stamps of the time. Following the Matanza from 1932-1979, military officers held the presidency, with some presidents using more repression than others. El Salvador's problems included unfair minimum wages, repression against student and general demonstrations, and election fraud.

§Europe

§Austria

January 29 – The minority government of Karl Buresch in Austria ends the governmental crisis.

§Benelux countries

June 20 – The Benelux customs union is negotiated.

§France

May 6 – Paul Gorguloff shoots French president Paul Doumer in Paris; Doumer dies the next day.

May 10 – Albert Lebrun becomes the new president of France.

§Germany

January 15 – About 6 million are unemployed in Germany.

February 25 – Adolf Hitler obtains German citizenship by naturalization, opening the opportunity for him to run in the 1932 election for Reichspräsident.

April 6 - The trial against fraudulent art dealer Otto Wacker begins in Berlin.

The Nazi Party had gained the largest share of the popular vote in the two Reichstag general elections of 1932, they had no majority of their own, and just a slim majority in parliament with their Papen-proposed Nationalist DNVP- NSDAP coalition. This coalition ruled through accepted continuance of the Presidential decree, issued under Article 48 of the 1919 constitution.

Hitler had run for president and struggling to reach middle-class voters. To rehabilitate his personal image, he focused on his domestic portrayal. Instead of downplaying his transient, rather lonely personal history, Hitler and his propaganda team started to foreground his personal life.

A fabricated personal life was created for Hitler as a PR move.

Hitler lost the 1932 election, but gained the support of many influential industrial interests.

April 10 – Paul von Hindenburg is elected president of Germany.

April 19 – German art dealer Otto Wacker is sentenced to 19 months in prison for selling fraudulent paintings he attributed to Vincent van Gogh.

May 30 – German chancellor Heinrich Brüning resigns. President Hindenburg asks Franz von Papen to form a new government.

June 14 – Bans against the SS and SA are overturned in Germany.

July 17 – Bloody Sunday: In Altona, Germany, armed communists attack a National Socialist demonstration; 18 are killed. Many other political street fights follow.

August 30 – Hermann Göring is elected as chairman of the German Senate.

November 21 – German president Hindenburg begins negotiations with Adolf Hitler about the formation of a new government.

December 3 – Hindenburg names Kurt von Schleicher as German chancellor.

§Great Britain

January 8 – In Britain the Archbishop of Canterbury forbids church remarriage of divorced persons.

January 26 – The British submarine HMS M2 sinks with all 60 hands.

January 30 – Brave New World, a novel by Aldous Huxley, is first published.

April 14 – John Cockcroft and Ernest Walton focus a proton beam on lithium and split its nucleus.

April 24 - The mass trespass of Kinder Scout was a notable act of willful trespass by ramblers. It was undertaken at Kinder Scout, in the Peak District of Derbyshire, England, to highlight that walkers in England and Wales were denied access to areas of open country. Political and conservation activist Benny Rothman was one of the leaders of the mass trespass. This eventually led to the creation of National Parks.

December 19 – BBC World Service begins broadcasting as the BBC Empire Service.

§Ireland

March 9 – Eamon de Valera is elected President of the Executive Council. It is the first change of government in the Irish Free State in 10 years.

§Italy

August 6 – The first Venice Film Festival is held.

§Netherlands

The Afsluitdijk was completed, which cut off the IJsselmeer from the open sea.

§Poland

November 30 – The Cipher Bureau breaks the German Enigma cipher.

§Portugal

July 5 – Antonio de Oliveira Salazar becomes the fascist prime minister of Portugal

§Spain

September 9 – The Generalitat reinstated, Catalonia regains political autonomy inside the 2nd Spanish Republic from September 25 on

§Switerzerland

February 2 - A general disarmament convention begins in Geneva.

August 18 – Auguste Piccard reaches an altitude of 16,197 meters with an air balloon.

November 9 - Riots between conservative and socialist supporters in Switzerland leave 13 dead, 60 injured.

§Vatican

February 11 – Pope Pius XI meets Benito Mussolini in Vatican City.

§India

January 3 – The British arrest and intern Mohandas Gandhi and Vallabhbhai Patel.

May 16 – Massive riots between Hindus and Muslims in Bombay leave thousands dead and injured.

September 20 – Mohandas Gandhi begins a hunger strike in Poona prison.

October 15 - Tata Airlines (later to become Air India) makes its first flight.

§Middle East

§Iraq

April 25 – Two of the companions of Islam's Last Prophet Muhammad are moved from their graves upon informing of water in the graves in the dream of King Faisal of Iraq in Salmaan Paak, Iraq. Their names are Hazrat Hudhayfah ibn al-Yaman and Hazrat Jabir ibn Abd-Allah.

§Saudi Arabia

September 23 – The Kingdom of Hejaz and Nejd is renamed the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

§North America

August 31 – A total solar eclipse is visible from northern Canada through NE Vermont, New Hampshire, SW Maine, and the Capes of Massachusetts.

§Canada

September 11 – Canadian operations end on the Great Gorge and International Railway.

§Cuba

November 9 - A hurricane and huge waves kill about 2,500 in Santa Cruz del Sur in the worst natural disaster in Cuban history.

§Newfoundland

April - 10,000 disgruntled Newfoundlanders march on their legislature to show discontent with their current political situation; this is a flash point in the demise of the Dominion of Newfoundland.

§United States

The Dust Bowl covered one hundred million acres in parts of Nebraska, Kansas, Colorado, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas, and left thousands dead, diseased and destitute.

January 1 – The United States Post Office Department issues a set of 12 stamps commemorating the 200th anniversary of George Washington's birth.

February 4 - The 1932 Winter Olympics open in Lake Placid, New York.

February 22 – The first Purple Heart was awarded to General Douglas MacArthur.

March 1 – Charles Lindbergh, Jr., the infant son of Anne Morrow Lindbergh and Charles Lindbergh, is kidnapped from the family home near Hopewell, New Jersey.

March 7 – Four people are killed when police fire upon 3,000 unemployed autoworkers marching outside the Ford River Rouge Plant in Dearborn, Michigan.

May 12 – Ten weeks after his abduction, the infant son of Charles Lindbergh is found dead just a few miles from the Lindberghs' home.

May 20-21 – Amelia Earhart flies from the USA to Derry, Northern Ireland in 14 hours 54 minutes.

May 29 – The first of approximately 15,000 World War I veterans arrive in Washington, D.C. demanding the immediate payment of their military bonus, becoming known as the Bonus Army.

July 28 – U.S. President Herbert Hoover orders the U.S. Army to forcibly evict the Bonus Army of World War I veterans gathered in Washington, D.C.. Troops disperse the last of the Bonus Army the next day.

July 30 - The 1932 Summer Olympics open in Los Angeles.

August 2 – The first positron is discovered by Carl D. Anderson.

August 10 – A 5.1 kg chondrite-type meteorite breaks into at least 7 fragments and strikes earth near the town of Archie in Cass County, Missouri.

§U.S. Business

Unemployment in the USA – ca. 33% – 14 million.

February 2 - The Reconstruction Finance Corporation begins operations in Washington, D.C.

July 8 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average reaches its lowest level of the Great Depression, bottoming out at 41.22.

August – A farmers' revolt begins in the Midwestern United States.

§U.S. Entertainment

February 15 – Clara, Lu & Em, generally regarded as the first daytime network soap opera, debuts in its morning time slot over the Blue Network of NBC Radio, having originally been a late evening program.

March 25 – Tarzan the Ape Man opens, with Olympic gold medal swimmer Johnny Weissmuller in the title role (Weismuller will star in a total of 12 Tarzan films).

May 2 – Comedian Jack Benny's radio show airs for the first time.

June 29 – The comedy serial Vic and Sade debuts on NBC Radio.

July 30 - Walt Disney's Flowers and Trees, the first animated cartoon to be presented in full Technicolor, premieres in Los Angeles, California. It releases in theaters, along with Eugene O'Neill's experimental play Strange Interlude (starring Norma Shearer and Clark Gable), and will go on to win the first Academy Award for Best Animated Short.

October 23 – Fred Allen's radio comedy show debuts on CBS.

November 1 – The San Francisco Opera House opens.

November 7 – Buck Rogers in the 25th Century airs on American radio for the first time.

November 16 – New York City's Palace Theatre fully converts to a cinema, which is considered the final death knell of vaudeville as a popular entertainment in the United States.

December 27 – Radio City Music Hall opens in New York City.

§U.S. Politics

January 7 – The Stimson Doctrine is proclaimed, in response to the Japanese invasion of Manchuria. The Stimson Doctrine is a policy of the United States federal government, enunciated in a note of January 7, 1932, to Japan and China, of non-recognition of international territorial changes that were executed by force

January 12 – Hattie W. Caraway becomes the first woman elected to the United States Senate.

April 6 - U.S. president Herbert Hoover supports armament limitations.

September 1st, Popular New York Mayor, Jimmy Walker resigned after hearings accused him of having an affair with Betty Compton, mismanaging government affairs in New York and travels abroad. He left for Paris nine days after resigning to avoid prosecution. As he boarded the liner Conte Grande, a reporter said to him, 'Everyone is for you, Jim. All the world loves a lover.' 'You are mistaken,' Walker replied. 'What the world loves is a winner.' "

June 6 – The Revenue Act of 1932 is enacted, creating the first gas tax in the United States at 1 cent per US gallon (0.26 ¢/L) sold.

November 8 – U.S. presidential election, 1932: Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt defeats Republican President Herbert Hoover in a landslide victory.

§U.S. Industry

The first patent for a tree was issued to James E. Markham for a peach tree. Patent number PP7 (Plant Patent 7) was issued on February 16, 1932, having been filed on September 6, 1930 for the Markham Peach. The patent was assigned to Stark Bros. Nurseries & Orchards Company of Louisiana, Missouri.

§Russia

§Soviet Union

Famine affected the top grain-producing areas of the Soviet Union over several months, the Soviet famine of 1932–1933 is remembered by some as the Holodomor, a term that translates to "hungry mass death." Between seven and 10 million were killed in the area, which is now part of the Ukraine and Siberia, among other areas.

November 19 – The second wife of Joseph Stalin is found dead in her home.

December 12 – Japan and the Soviet Union reform their diplomatic connections.December 12 – Japan and the Soviet Union reform their diplomatic connections.

§Scandinavia

§Finland

February 27 – The Mäntsälä Rebellion occurs in Finland. was a failed coup attempt by the Lapua Movement to overthrow the Finnish government.

On February 27, 1932 some 400 armed members of the Suojeluskunta militia interrupted a meeting of Social Democrats in Mäntsälä with small arms fire. In the next few days, leading members of the Lapua Movement (Lapuanliike) and hundreds of armed members of Suojeluskunta arrived at Mäntsälä. The former Chief of General Staff, Major General Wallenius also joined the leadership of the rebellion. The men refused to disperse and demanded the cabinet's resignation and a change in political course.

Two days later the cabinet ordered the leaders of the Lapua movement arrested using the Protection of the Republic Act which the movement itself had urged for a year before. Army units began preparing as the Chief of Defence, Lieutenant General Aarne Sihvo was prepared to use force to end the rebellion. Orders were given to reinforce the defence of Helsinki with tanks and artillery in case the situation would escalate. As the tensions grew, so did the consumption of alcohol among the instigators.

On March 2 President Svinhufvud gave a radio speech in which he urged the militiamen to return home and promised that only the leaders would be punished. The men dispersed and the leaders were arrested a few days later. During the spring the Lapua movement was disbanded.

The Mäntsälä rebellion can be considered the last major incident caused by the radical right-wing activism in Finland after the Civil War. In the coming years the economic situation in Finland would improve and the radical movements would lose support.

April 5 – Prohibition is lifted in Finland at 10 in the morning (local time), resulting in a new mnemonic "543210".

§Norway

July 12 - Norway annexes northern Greenland.

§Sweden

October 19 – Prince Gustav Adolf of Sweden marries Princess Sibylla of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha.

§South America

March 20 – The Graf Zeppelin begins a regular route to South America.

§Bolivia

June - The Chaco War begins between Bolivia and Paraguay.

Though the region was sparsely populated, control of the Paraguay River running through it would have given one of the two landlocked countries access to the Atlantic Ocean. This was especially important to Bolivia, which had lost its Pacific Ocean coast to Chile in the War of the Pacific (1883).

Furthermore, the discovery of oil in the Andean foothills sparked speculation that the Chaco itself might be a rich source of petroleum. Foreign oil companies were involved in the exploration: companies mainly descended from Standard Oil, backed Bolivia, while Shell Oil supported Paraguay. Standard was already producing oil from wells in the high hills of eastern Bolivia, around Villa Montes. Paraguayan stamp showing the Chaco

In international arbitration, Bolivia argued that the region had been part of the original Spanish colonial province of Moxos and Chiquitos to which Bolivia was heir. Meanwhile, Paraguay had begun to colonize the region. Indeed, both Paraguayan and Argentinian planters already bred cattle and exploited quebracho woods in the area, while the small indigenous population of Guaraní-speaking tribes was related to that country's own Guaraní heritage.

Paraguay had lost almost half of its territory to Brazil and Argentina in the War of the Triple Alliance and was not prepared to see what it perceived as its last chance for a viable economy fall victim to Bolivia.

§Brazil

Female suffrage is granted in Brazil.

Alberto Santos Dumont, the Brazilian pioneer aviator and the man who really invented the aeroplane committed suicide by hanging himself.

§Chile

June 4 – A military coup occurs in Chile.

§Paraguay

June - The Chaco War begins between Bolivia and Paraguay.

§Southeast Asia

§Siam

June 24 – After a relatively bloodless military rebellion, Siam becomes a constitutional monarchy.

§South Pacific

§Australia

March 19 – The Sydney Harbour Bridge opens.

May 13 – The Premier of New South Wales, Jack Lang, is dismissed by the State Governor, Sir Phillip Game.

§Deaths

April 27 - American poet Hart Crane took his life in April 1932 by jumping off the steamship Orizaba into the Gulf of Mexico after he was beaten for making sexual advances to a male member of the crew.

§Sources

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Page last modified on February 04, 2017, at 09:18 PM