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1875CE

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§Of World Interest

May 20 - International Bureau of Weights and Measures forms by treaty

§Africa

November 7 - Verney Cameron is 1st European to cross equitorial Africa

§Asia

§Taiwan

The Taipei government (台北府) was established, under the jurisdiction of Fujian province. Also, there had been various conflicts between Chinese immigrants. Most conflicts were between Han from Fujian and Han from Guangdong, between people from different areas of Fujian, between Han and Hakka settlers, or simply between people of different surnames engaged in clan feuds. Because of the strong provincial loyalties held by these immigrants, the Qing government felt Taiwan was somewhat difficult to govern.

§Ethiopia

September 7 – Battle of Agurdat: An Egyptian invasion of Ethiopia fails when Emperor Yohannes IV defeats an army led by Werner Munzinger.

November 16 - Battle at Gundet: Ethiopian emperor Yohannes defeats the Egyptians

§South Africa

August 14 - Society of Regte Afrikaanders establishes in Paarl

§Tonga

November 4 - Tonga adopts constitution

§Asia

§China

January 12 – Kwang-su becomes emperor of China.

§Central America

§Nicaragua

Pedro Joaquín Chamorro Alfaro became the President of Nicaragua on March 1st.

§Europe

§France

March 3 - Georges Bizet's opera "Carmen" premieres (Paris)

May 20 – The Metre Convention is signed in Paris.

June 22 - Garonne Flood: great damage in Verdun and Toulouse, kills about 1,000

§Great Britain

January 1 – Midland Railway abolishes Second Class passenger facilities, leaving First Class and Third Class. Other British Railway companies follow Midland's lead during the rest of the year (Third Class is renamed Second Class in 1956).

August 2 - World 1st roller skating rink opens in London

August 25 - Matthew Webb becomes 1st to swim English Channel, 21h 45m

§Netherlands

June 6 - Netherlands goes on the gold standard

§India

April 10 – The Arya Samaj is founded in Mumbai by Swami Dayananda.

§North America

§Canada

March 3 – The first organized indoor game of ice hockey is played between two teams at the Victoria Skating Rink in Montreal, Canada.

December 17 - Violent bread riots in Montreal

§United States

There was a drought in Southern California that lasted 2 years.

Anti-Chinese sentiment led to the first known anti-narcotics law in the U.S., a San Francisco ordinance against opium dens.

The Tong wars begin in San Francisco.

January 5 - President Grant sends federal troops to Vicksburg, Mississippi

February 25 - Kiowa Indians under Lone Wolf (Guipago) surrender at Ft. Sill

February 25 – The majority of the Yavapai (Wipukyipai) and Tonto Apache (Dil Zhéé) tribes are forced by the U.S. Cavalry under command of Brigadier General George Crook to walk at gunpoint from the Arizona's Verde Valley, to the San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation, 180 miles to the southeast. The two tribes are not allowed to return to the Verde Valley until 1900.

April - Billy the Kid AKA Henry McCarty was arrested by Grant County Sheriff Harvey Whitehill, after McCarty stole some cheese. He was around 15 or 16 years old at the time. This was his first known arrest.

May 1 - 238 members of "Whiskey Ring" accused of anti-U.S. activities

June 4 – Two American colleges play each other in arguably the first game of College Football: Tufts University and Harvard University at Jarvis Field in Cambridge, Mass..

June 19 - Formal opening of U.S. Marine Hospital at Presidio, San Francisco.

July 4 - White Democrats kill several blacks in terrorist attacks in Vicksburg

July 7 - Jesse James robs train in Otterville, Missouri

September 1 – A murder conviction effectively forces the violent Irish anti-owner coal miners, the "Molly Maguires", to disband.

September 24, 1875, McCarty was again arrested when he was found in possession of clothing and firearms that a fellow boarder had stolen from a Chinese laundry owner. Two days after McCarty was placed in jail, the teenager escaped by worming his way up the jailhouse chimney. From that point on, McCarty was more or less a fugitive. According to some accounts, he eventually found work as an itinerant ranch hand and shepherd in southeastern Arizona.

October 15 – Chief Lone Horn of the Minneconjou dies at the Cheyenne River, leaving his son Big Foot as the new chief.

October 16 – Brigham Young University is founded in Provo, Utah.

October 25 – The first performance of the Piano Concerto No. 1 by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky is given in Boston, Massachusetts with Hans von Bülow as soloist.

November 9 – Indian Wars: In Washington, D.C., Indian Inspector E.C. Watkins issues a report stating that hundreds of Sioux and Cheyenne associated with Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse are hostile to the United States (the Battle of the Little Bighorn is fought in Montana the next year).

December 4 - William Marcy "Boss" Tweed (NYC-Tammany Hall) escapes from jail and flees to Cuba, then to Spain.

December 9 – The Massachusetts Rifle Association, "America's Oldest Active Gun Club", is formed.

§U.S. Law

March 1 - Congress passes Civil Rights Act which prohibits racial discrimination in public accommodations and jury duty; invalidated by Supreme Court, 1883

March 3 - Congress authorizes 20 cent coin, lasts only 3 years

§U.S. Industry

January 26 - Electric dental drill is patented by George F Green

June 3 - Alexander Graham Bell makes 1st voice transmission

June 4 - Pacific Stock Exchange opens

June 5 - Pacific Stock Exchange formally opens

§U.S. Politics

February 27 – Newton Booth, 11th Governor of California, resigns, having been elected Senator. Lieutenant Governor of California Romualdo Pacheco becomes acting Governor. He is later replaced by elected governor William Irwin.

September 29 - US-Spanish relations decline in wake of Cuban rebellion

§U.S. Religion

March 15 - 1st U.S. cardinal (John McCloskey) invested

June 2 - James Augustine Healey became 1st Black Catholic Bishop in US

October 3 - Hebrew Union College was founded under the leadership of Rabbi Isaac Mayer Wise in Cincinnati, Ohio and is the oldest extant rabbinical seminary in the United States. The first rabbinical class graduated in 1883 CE.

November 17 - Amer Theosophical Society founded by Mme Blavatsky and Col Olcott

§Russia

May 7 – The Treaty of Saint Petersburg (1875) is signed between Japan and Russia.

§South America

May 16 - Quake in Venezuela and Colombia kills 16,000

§South Pacific

§Australia

February 24 – The SS Gothenburg sinks off the Australian east coast with the loss of approximately 102 lives, including a number of high profile civil servants and dignitaries.

§Hawaiian Islands

After meeting with President Grant, King Kalakaua mangaged to negotiate a treaty with the United States that allowed certain Hawaiian goods, mainly sugar and rice, to be admitted into the United States tax-free. The treaty was signed on January 30th.

§Deaths

  • July 31 - Former President Andrew Johnson dies.

§Sources

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