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1871CE

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§Africa

§German East Africa

March 21 - Journalist Henry M. Stanley begins his famous expedition to Africa

November 3 - Henry M. Stanley in what was later Tanganyika said "Dr. Livingstone, I presume?"

§Asia

§Taiwan

October 18, 1871, four ships which had carried the Nintouzei tax poll tax to Ryukyuan Kingdom started from Naha for their homeland. They met a violent typhoon and one ship disappeared, one ship sailed safely, and two ships were shipwrecked; one reached the eastern tip of Taiwan on November 6. Another ship reached the western part of Taiwan and was safe.

November 9 - Sixty-six people attempted to escape the Mudan community of which 54 were massacred. Yang Youwang saved 12 people by appeasing the Mudan villagers by giving them barrels of alcohol.

Following the shipwreck of the Ryūkyūan vessel, in which the heads of 54 crew members were taken by the aboriginal Taiwanese Paiwan people in Mutan village (牡丹社), the Japanese sought to use this incident as a pretext to have the Qing formally acknowledge Japanese sovereignty over the Ryuku islands as a Japanese prefecture.

According to records from Japanese documents, Mao Changxi (毛昶熙) and Dong Xun (董恂), the Qing ministers at Zongli Yamen (總理衙門) who handled the complaints from Japanese envoy Yanagihara Sakimitsu (柳原前光) replied first that they had heard only of a massacre of Ryūkyūans, not of Japanese, and quickly noted that Ryūkyū was under Chinese suzerainty, therefore this issue was not Japan's business. In addition, the governor-general of the Qing province Fujian had rescued the survivors of the massacre and returned them safely to Ryūkyū. The Qing authorities explained that there were two kinds of aborigines on Taiwan: those governed by the Qing, and those unnaturalized "raw barbarians ... beyond the reach of Qing government and customs." They indirectly hinted that foreigners traveling in those areas settled by indigenous people must exercise caution. After the Yanagihara-Yamen interview, the Japanese took their explanation to mean that the Qing government had not opposed Japan's claims to sovereignty over the Ryūkyū Islands, disclaimed any jurisdiction over Aboriginal Taiwanese, and had indeed consented to Japan's expedition to Taiwan. The Qing Dynasty made it clear to the Japanese that Taiwan was definitely within Qing jurisdiction, even though part of that island's aboriginal population was not yet under the influence of Chinese culture. The Qing also pointed to similar cases all over the world where an aboriginal population within a national boundary was not completely subjugated by the dominant culture of that country.

§Central America

§Guatamala

June 30 Guatemala revolts for agrarian reforms

§Nicaragua

José Vicente Cuadra became the President of Nicaragua on March 1st.

§Europe

§Belgium

January 1 - Belgium disbands salt tax

§France

January 28 - Paris surrenders to Prussians When an armistice was signed in January of 1871, Parisians denounced it and crowds marched to the Bastille flying the tricolor and the red flag of the International.

February - 'a mysterious authority made itself felt in Paris as vigilance committees appeared throughout the city.

March - Just as the French army seemed ready to restore order, even more sensational news appeared in the dailies: the people of Paris were refusing to surrender their arms. Indeed, when French generals ordered the Parisian National Guard to disarm, the guardsmen turned their guns on their own army generals. Government forces withdrew to Versailles, now the seat of a new provisional government.

March 18 - Communards revolt in Paris

March 28 - The Paris Commune was formally established in Paris. The citizens of the former capital created an independent Commune of Paris.

May 10 - German-French peace treaty signed: France cedes most of Alsace and the Moselle department of Lorraine following Germany's victory in the Franco-Prussian War

May 28 - Paris communards revolt put down

La semaine sanglante (the week of blood) began as regular army troops took the city street by street, executing citizen soldiers of the Parisian National Guard as soon as they surrendered. In retaliation, the Communards killed scores of hostages and burned large sections of the city to the ground. By the time the killing ended, at least 25,000 Parisians, including many unarmed citizens, had been slaughtered by French army troops.

§Germany

January 18th, the member-states of the North German Federation and the south German states unite into a single nation-state known as the German Empire. The King of Prussia is declared the first German Emperor as Wilhelm I of Germany.

April 16 - German Empire ends all anti-Jewish civil restrictions

May 10 - Peace of Frankfurt-am-Main concluded between France and Germany

§Great Britain

Bank Holidays Act 1871 established the feast day of St Stephen as a non-moveable public holiday

March 29 - Royal Albert Hall opened by Queen Victoria in London

§Italy

July 1 - Rome became the official capital of united Italy and from then until June 1929 CE the popes had no temporal power.

§Netherlands

October 1 - General Dutch Werkliedenverbond (ANWV), forms in Utrecht

October 31 - Founding of Netherlands Protestant Union in Dokkum

§Spain

January 2nd, 25 year old Amadeus I became King of Spain.

§Switzerland

September 17 - Mont Cenis railway tunnel Switzerland opens

§North America

§Canada

April 14 - Canada sets denominations of currency as dollars, cents, and mills

July 20 British Columbia becomes 6th Canadian province

§United States

January 3 - Oleomargarine patented by Henry Bradley, Binghamton, New York

January 16 - Jefferson Long of Georgia sworn in as 2nd black congressman

January 17 - First cable car patented, by Andrew S Hallidie (begins service in 1873 CE ?)

January 26 - U.S. income tax repealed

January 31 - Millions of birds fly over western SF, darkens sky

February 1 - Jefferson Long of Georgia is 1st black to make an official speech in House of Representatives (opposing leniency to former Confederates)

February 9 - Federal fish protection office authorized by Congress

February 27 - Meeting of Alabama claims commission

February 28 - 2nd Enforcement Act gives federal control of congressional elections

March 3 - Congress changes Indian tribes status from independent to dependent

March 3 - Congress establishes the civil service system

March 16 - First fertilizer law enacted

March 17 - National Association of Professional Base-Ball players organized

March 22 - William Holden of North Carolina becomes 1st governor removed by impeachment

March 28 - San Francisco Art Association holds open reception at 430 Pine

April 10 - William Hammond Hall's maps and surveys of Golden Gate Park accepted

April 20 - Third Enforcement Act (President can suspend writ of habeas corpus). With passage of the Third Force Act, popularly known as the Ku Klux Act, Congress authorizes President Ulysses S. Grant to declare martial law, impose heavy penalties against terrorist organizations, and use military force to suppress the Ku Klux Klan (KKK). passage of the Ku Klux Act led to nine South Carolina counties being placed under martial law and thousands of arrests.

April 23 - Blossom Rock in San Francisco Bay blown up

April 28 - Camp Grant Massacre - Early in 1871, a thirty-seven year old first lieutenant named Royal Emerson Whitman assumed command of Camp Grant, about 50 miles (80 km) northeast of Tucson. In February 1871 five old Apache women straggled into Camp Grant to look for a son who had been taken prisoner. Whitman fed them and treated them kindly, so other Apaches from Aravaipa and Pinal bands soon came to the post to receive rations of beef and flour. That spring, Whitman created a refuge along Aravaipa Creek, about five miles (8 km) east of Camp Grant, for nearly 500 Aravaipa and Pinal Apaches, including Chief Eskiminzin. The Apaches began cutting hay for the post's horse and harvesting barley in nearby ranchers' fields.

Whitman may have suspected that peace could not last. He urged Eskiminzin to move his people to the White Mouintains near Fort Apache, which was established in 1870, but he refused. During the winter and spring, William S. Oury and Jesús María Elías formed a Committee of Public Safety, which blamed every depredation in southern Arizona on the Camp Grant Apaches. After Apaches ran off livestock from San Xavier on April 10, Elías contacted his old ally Francisco Galerita, leader of the Tohono O'odham at San Xavier. Oury collected arms and ammunition from his followers.

On the afternoon of April 28, six Caucasians, forty-eight Mexicans, and ninety-two O'odham gathered along Rillito Creek and set off on a march to Aravaipa Canyon, one of the Americans was William S. Oury, the brother of Granville Henderson Oury. At dawn on Sunday, April 30, they surrounded the Apache camp. O'odham were the main fighters, while the Americans and Mexicans picked off Apaches who tried to escape. Most of the Apache men were off hunting in the mountains. All but eight of the corpses were women and children. Twenty-seven children had been captured and were sold into slavery in Mexico by the Papago and the Mexicans themselves. A total of 144 Aravaipas and Pinals had been killed and mutilated

The first large-scale slaughter of buffalo by white men with high-powered rifles took place in the years 1871 and 1872. There had been a limited market for buffalo products before that

May 4 - First baseball league game (National Association of Baseball Players), (Ft. Wayne 2, Cleveland 0) Deacon Jim White gets 1st hit, a double

May 8 - English - U.S. treaty ends Alabama dispute

May 12 - Segregated street cars integrated in Louisville, Kentucky

May 17 - Indians fighter General Sherman escapes in ambulance vs Comanches

June 3 - Jesse James and his gang robs Obocock Bank (Corydon Iowa), of $15,000

June 16 - Ancient Arabic Order of Nobles of Mystic Shrine founded, New York City

July 3 - Jesse James robs bank in Corydon, Iowa ($45,000)

July 5 - Trial against Kiowa chief Satanta (White Bear) and Big Tree, begins

October 7 - 16-hour fire injures 30 of Chicago's 185 firefighters

October 8 - Gas explosion destroys Peshtigo, Wisconsin

October 8 - Great Fire kills 200, destroys over 4miles (10 km) of Chicago buildings, and original Emancipation Proclamation

October 11 - Great Chicago Fire is finally extinguished after 3 days, 300 killed

October 12 - President Grant condemns Ku Klux Klan

October 17 - President Grant suspends writ of habeas corpus

October 24 - Mob in LA hangs 18 Chinese

October 27 - Boss Tweed (William Macy Tweed), Democratic leader of Tammany Hall, arrested after New York Times exposed his corruption

September 9 - Mary Stilwell turns 16 years old and meets Thomas Edison.

November 6 - President Grant re-elected

November 24 - National Rifle Association organized in New York City

November 28 - Ku Klux Klan trials began in Federal District Court in SC

On December 25, 1871, Thomas Edison married 16 year old Mary Stilwell, whom he had met two months earlier. They had three children.

§U.S. Culture

The State of Delaware lowered its age of consent from 10 years old to 7 years old.

§U.S. Religion

October 2 - Brigham Young, Mormon leader, was arrested for bigamy. The 70 year old Young appeared in court on October 9. It was said that he was "feeble and tottering" from a recent illness as he left court. Major Charles Hemstead, former editor of the anti-Mormon Union Vedette offered to be his lawyer. Though he had always opposed Mormon domination he was more opposed to the growing power of the "Gentile Ring", a group of around 12 federal appointees and associates who fanatically opposed Mormonism.

St. Thomas, founded by Mormon colonists 7 years prior, at the confluence of the Colorado and Virgin Rivers in Nevada, abandoned the site.

§South America

§Venezuela

Antonio Guzmán Blanco rules as dictator.

§Sources

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Page last modified on July 09, 2017, at 12:38 PM