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§Of World Interest

Gregor Mendel formulates his theories of Mendelian inheritance; they are mainly ignored for years.

Francis Galton, polymath inventor of the weather map and the silent dog whistle, introduces eugenics, after his half-cousin Charles Darwin.



July 14 - Under the Second Empire (1852–1871), the Code de l'indigénat (Indigenous Code) was implemented by the Sénatus-consulte of July 14, 1865. It allowed Muslims to apply for full French citizenship, a measure that few took, since it involved renouncing the right to be governed by sharia law in personal matters and was considered a kind of apostasy. Its first article stipulated:

The indigenous Muslim is French; however, he will continue to be subjected to Muslim law. He may be admitted to serve in the army (armée de terre) and the navy (armée de mer). He may be called to functions and civil employment in Algeria. He may, on his demand, be admitted to enjoy the rights of a French citizen; in this case, he is subjected to the political and civil laws of France.

§South Africa

Seqiti War

War again broke out in 1865 and the Boers met with considerable success. Led by King Moshoeshoe I., The war lasted for almost two years.



December 10 - Léopold II becomes King of the Belgians.


June 10 - After grave difficulties in rehearsal, Tristan und Isolde premiered at the National Theatre in Munich. The conductor of this premiere was Hans von Bülow, whose wife Cosima had given birth in April that year to a daughter, named Isolde, the child not of von Bülow but of Wagner. Cosima was 24 years younger than Wagner and was herself illegitimate, the daughter of the Countess Marie d'Agoult who had left her husband for Franz Liszt. Liszt disapproved of his daughter seeing Wagner, though the two men were friends. The indiscreet affair scandalized Munich, and to make matters worse, Wagner fell into disfavour amongst members of the court, who were suspicious of his influence on the king

§Great Britain

July - The Christian Mission, later renamed the Salvation Army, is founded in Whitechapel, London by William and Catherine Booth.

July 5 - The first speed limit is introduced in Britain: 2 mph in town and 4 mph in the country.


July 14 - The summit of the Matterhorn in the Alps is reached for the first time; 4 of the party of 7 die in a fall during the descent.


August 25 - The Shergotty meteorite Mars meteorite falls in Sherghati, Gaya, Bihar, India.

§North America


During the elections of 1864, fewer than 2,000 black Jamaicans were eligible to vote out of a total population of over 436,000, despite outnumbering whites by a ratio of 32:1. A two-year drought preceding 1865 made economic conditions still worse for the population of former slaves and their descendants, and rumors began circulating that white planters intended to restore slavery.

In 1865, Dr. Edward Underhill, Secretary of the Baptist Missionary Society of Great Britain, wrote a letter to the Colonial Office in order to express Jamaica's current poor state of affairs. This letter was later shown to Jamaica's Governor Edward Eyre, who immediately tried to deny the truth of its statements, and Jamaica's poor blacks began organizing in "Underhill Meetings." In fact, peasants in St. Ann parish sent a petition to Queen Victoria asking for Crown lands to cultivate as they could not find land for themselves, but it passed by Eyre first and he enclosed a letter with his own comments.

The Queen's reply left no doubt in the minds of the poor that Eyre had influenced her opinion – she encouraged the poor to work harder, rather than offering any help. George William Gordon, a wealthy mulatto politician, began encouraging the people to find ways to make their grievances known. One of his followers was a church deacon named Paul Bogle.

Following the massacres of Europeans during the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the British population on Jamaica, as in many other British colonies, was fearful of a black uprising.

October 7 - A black man was put on trial and imprisoned for trespassing on a long-abandoned plantation, creating anger among black Jamaicans. When one member of a group of black protesters from the village of Stony Gut was arrested, the protesters became unruly and broke the accused man from prison. When he returned to his home, Bogle learned that he and 27 of his men had warrants issued for their arrest for rioting, resisting arrest, and assaulting the police.

October 11 - Paul Bogle leads hundreds of black men and women in a march in Jamaica, starting the Morant Bay rebellion.

When the group arrived at the court house they were met by a small volunteer militia who panicked and opened fire on the group, killing seven black protesters before retreating. The black protesters then rioted, killing 18 people (including white officials and militia) and taking control of the town. In the days that followed some 2,000 black rebels roamed the countryside, killing two white planters and forcing others to flee for their lives.

Governor John Eyre sent government troops, under Brigadier-General Alexander Nelson, to hunt down the poorly armed rebels and bring Paul Bogle back to Morant Bay for trial. The troops were met with no organized resistance but killed blacks indiscriminately, many of whom had not been involved in the riot or rebellion: according to one soldier, "we slaughtered all before us… man or woman or child". In the end, 439 black Jamaicans were killed directly by soldiers, and 354 more (including Paul Bogle) were arrested and later executed, some without proper trials. Paul Bogle was executed "either the same evening he was tried or the next morning." Other punishments included flogging for over 600 men and women (including some pregnant women), and long prison sentences.

Gordon, who had little – if anything – to do with the rebellion was also arrested. Though he was arrested in Kingston, he was transferred by Eyre to Morant Bay, where he could be tried under martial law. The speedy trial saw Gordon hanged on October 23, two days after his trial. He and William Bogle, Paul's brother, "were both tried together, and executed at the same time."

§United States

In 1865 one of Madison's former slaves, Paul Jennings, wrote the first White House memoir: "A Colored Man's Reminiscences of Life in the White House." In the book, Jennings called Madison "one of the best men that ever lived" and said Madison "never would strike a slave, although he had over one hundred; neither would he allow an overseer to do it."

The Apotheosis of Washington was painted on the ceiling of the Capitol Building by Caontantino Brumidi. It pictured Washington in full Masonic Regalia.

"After April, 1865, the city seemed to slip further into economic and physical decline. Hotels, boardinghouses, and restaurants no longer could rely upon the steady stream of visitors, financiers, manufacturers, and military men. Many of the workers who had packed the Navy Yard, military depots, and government offices had left with the departing sol­diers. Merchants and suppliers who had become used to their bounty found themselves facing economic collapse. The prices of many goods and housing were exorbitant; crime and disorder increased, especially as military patrols left the city; many freedmen, as blacks were still called, continued to live in squalor, on the fringe of society, and without jobs; and services that city dwellers in the North took for granted -- paved and lighted streets, running water, sewers, and some attention to public health-remained primitive. As one dyspeptic visitor during the war noted, Washington 'was built for a city of the future, and the future has not yet been realized.' In the war's aftermath the future seemed further off than ever.

"Many of the reasons for Washington's crude and unfinished state lay in more than six decades of congressional inaction and neglect. Over the years, most members of Congress had been loath to spend money for streets, transportation, lighting, and sewers, much less for schools and police, for a city they regarded as their encampment for the fall and winter months. For them the very idea of a capital occupying neutral ground on the banks of the Potomac was something of an anomaly, a curiosity of the Constitution to be tolerated during the months the houses were in session and to be forgotten when they were in recess."

December 24 - Several US Civil War Confederate veterans form the Ku Klux Klan, to resist Reconstruction and intimidate "carpetbaggers" and "scalawags", as well as to repress the freed slaves.

Civil War

January 13 - American Civil War: The Second Battle of Fort Fisher begins when United States forces launch a major amphibious assault against the Confederate stronghold of Fort Fisher, North Carolina.

January 15 - American Civil War: United States forces capture Fort Fisher.

January 31 - American Civil War: Confederate General Robert E. Lee becomes general-in-chief.

February 17 - American Civil War: Columbia, South Carolina burns as Confederate forces flee from advancing Union forces.

March 13 - American Civil War: The Confederate States of America agrees to the use of African American troops.

March 18 - American Civil War: The Congress of the Confederate States of America adjourns for the last time.

March 19 - American Civil War: The Battle of Bentonville begins; by the end of the battle on March 21 the Confederate forces retreat from Four Oaks, North Carolina.

March 25 - American Civil War: In Virginia, Confederate forces capture Fort Steadman from the Union. Lee's army suffers heavy casualties during the battle of Fort Stedman—about 2,900, including 1,000 captured in the Union counterattack. Confederate positions are weakened. After the battle, Lee's defeat is only a matter of time.

April 1 - American Civil War - Battle of Five Forks: In Petersburg, Virginia, Confederate General Robert E. Lee begins his final offensive.

April 2 - American Civil War: Confederate President Jefferson Davis and most of his Cabinet flee the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia, which is taken by Union troops the next day.

April 9 - American Civil War: General Robert E. Lee surrenders to Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Court House, effectively ending the American Civil War.

April 16 - American Civil War: The Battle of Columbus, Georgia, also known as the Battle of Girard, Alabama (now Phenix City, Alabama) is widely regarded to be the last battle of the American Civil War. The Georgia state government has officially declared this battle the "last battle of the war between the states".

April 26 - American Civil War: General Joseph Johnston surrenders his army to Major General William Tecumseh Sherman at Durham Station, North Carolina.

May 1 - Memorial Day was started by former slaves in Charleston, SC to honor 257 dead Union Soldiers who had been buried in a mass grave.

May 4 - May 4 - American Civil War: Lieutenant General Richard Taylor, commanding all Confederate forces in Alabama, Mississippi, and eastern Louisiana, surrenders his forces to Union General E.R.S. Canby at Citronelle, Alabama, effectively ending all Confederate resistance east of the Mississippi.

The American Civil War ended. The Confederacy collapsed after Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Court House and the slaves were freed April 9th. Six days later, John Wilkes Booth, a well-known actor and a Confederate spy from Maryland, heard that the President and Mrs. Lincoln, along with the Grants, would be attending Ford's Theatre. Having failed in a plot to kidnap Lincoln earlier, Booth informed his co-conspirators of his intention to kill Lincoln. Others were assigned to assassinate vice-president Andrew Johnson and Secretary of State William H. Seward.

May 12-13 - American Civil War: The Battle of Palmito Ranch, also known as the Battle of Palmito Hill and the Battle of Palmetto Ranch. This occurred after the surrender of Johnson so while it was technically a Civil War battle it is not technically the last battle of the war.

Private John J. Williams of the 34th Indiana was the last fatality during the Battle at Palmito Ranch, making him likely the final combat death of the war. Fighting in the battle involved Caucasian, African-American, Hispanic, and Native American troops. Reports of shots from the Mexican side, the sounding of a warning to the Confederates of the Union approach, the crossing of Imperial cavalry into Texas, and the participation by several among Ford's troops are unverified, despite many witnesses reporting shooting from the Mexican shore.

June 2 - American Civil War: Confederate forces west of the Mississippi under General Edmund Kirby Smith surrender at Galveston, Texas, becoming the last to do so.

July 30 - The Powder River Expedition finally got underway, 2,072 well armed and well supplied troops leaving from the North Platte River. There were six companies of the 6th Michigan Volunteer Cavalry commanded by Colonel James H. Kidd. These were to be the troops to build and garrison Fort Reno. Colonel Connor had 745 officers, men and civilians in his column with 185 wagons and over 1,600 horses and mules. None of the U.S. Army columns captured any significant numbers of hostiles and the only action was the destruction of an Arapaho village near present day Ranchester, Wyoming on 29 August.

August 14 - A small stockade about 120 feet square was built on a high plateau on the banks of the Powder River near the mouth of the Dry Fork of the Powder River. The fort was a rough structure of cottonwood logs with buildings for mess, shops, dispensary, stable, warehouses, officers and enlisted barracks.

September - The Powder River Expedition broke up, having made two lasting effects: 1. the animosity of the Sioux and Cheyenne and 2. the building of Fort Connor on the Powder River.

November 11 - Fort Connor was officially named Fort Reno in honor of Major General Jessie L. Reno who had been killed at the Battle of South Mountain during the Civil War.

December 24 - The Ku Klux Klan is formed.

§Assassination of Abraham Lincoln

April 14 - Without his main bodyguard Ward Hill Lamon, to whom he related his famous dream of his own assassination, Lincoln left to attend the play Our American Cousin at Ford's Theater. As a lone bodyguard wandered, and Lincoln sat in his state box (Box 7) in the balcony, Booth crept up behind the President's box and waited for the funniest line of the play, hoping the laughter would cover the noise of the gunshot. On stage, a character named Lord Dundreary (played by Harry Hawk) who has just been accused of ignorance in regards to the manners of good society, replies, "Well, I guess I know enough to turn you inside out, old gal — you sockdologizing old man-trap..." When the laughter came Booth jumped into the box with the President and aimed a single-shot, round-slug .44 caliber Deringer at his head, firing at point-blank range. The bullet entered behind Lincoln's left ear and lodged behind his right eyeball. Major Henry Rathbone momentarily grappled with Booth but was cut by Booth's knife. Booth then leapt to the stage and shouted "Sic semper tyrannis!" (Latin: "Thus always to tyrants") and escaped, despite a broken leg suffered in the leap. A twelve-day manhunt ensued, in which Booth was chased by Federal agents (under the direction of Secretary of War Edwin Stanton), until he was finally cornered in a barnhouse in Virginia and shot, dying soon after.

An army surgeon, Doctor Charles Leale, quickly assessed the wound as mortal.

"I commenced to examine his head (as no wound near the shoulder was found) and soon passed my fingers over a large firm clot of blood situated about one inch below the superior curved line of the occipital bone," Leale reported. "The coagula I easily removed and passed the little finger of my left hand through the perfectly smooth opening made by the ball."
"I then heard cries that the 'President had been murdered,' which were followed by those of 'Kill the murderer' 'Shoot him' etc. which came from different parts of the audience," Leale wrote. "I immediately ran to the Presidents box and as soon as the door was opened was admitted and introduced to Mrs. Lincoln when she exclaimed several times, 'O Doctor, do what you can for him, do what you can!'"

The President was taken across the street from the theater to the Petersen House, where he lay in a coma for nine hours before he died. Several physicians attended Lincoln, including U.S. Army Surgeon General Joseph K. Barnes of the Army Medical Museum. Using a probe, Barnes located some fragments of Lincoln's skull and the ball lodged 6 inches (15 cm) inside his brain. Lincoln never regained consciousness and was officially pronounced dead at 7:22 a.m. April 15, 1865.

Booth Was Not Alone Mary Elizabeth Eugenia Jenkins Surratt (May/June 1823 in Waterloo, Maryland, USA – July 7, 1865 in Washington, D.C), was a member of the Abraham Lincoln assassination conspiracy and the first woman executed by the United States federal government, for her role in the conspiracy. She was executed by hanging. She was the mother of John Surratt, also alleged to be involved in the conspiracy.

Lincoln assassination Conspiracy

Surratt and her family were Southern sympathizers. Her older brother, Zadoc Jenkins, was arrested by Union forces for trying to prevent an occupying Federal soldier from voting in the Maryland elections that gave Lincoln a second term. Until his death in 1862, her husband, John Surratt Sr., had operated a tavern and U.S. Post Office (he served as U.S.Postmaster), which was also the polling place, at a crossroads that was known as Surrattsville, thirteen miles southeast of Washington, D.C.. After the assassination, the town was renamed Robeysville and later Clinton, Maryland. In 1864, Mary Surratt rented the tavern and farm to John Lloyd, a former Washington policeman, and moved with her children to Washington, D.C., where she set up an eight-room boarding house on H Street. This boarding house was the site of meetings between her son and the other Lincoln conspirators, including John Wilkes Booth. Her son later admitted that he was actively involved in an earlier plot to kidnap the president, but claimed he was not involved in the assassination. He testified at his own trial that he had been in Elmira, New York enroute to Montreal, Canada, when Lincoln was shot. He also denied that his mother had been involved in the plot in any way.

On the day of the assassination, Mary rode out to her tavern with one of her boarders, Louis J. Weichmann, a young War Department clerk, who was a friend of her son, John Surratt, Jr. Although Mary Surratt claimed to have made the journey to collect back rent owed to her by her tenant, John Lloyd, Lloyd later testified against her, saying she gave him a package containing field glasses and told him to " make ready the shooting irons." This referred to two repeating carbines and seven revolvers that she had bought and stored for the conspirators on her property. After assassinating President Lincoln at Ford's Theater, John Wilkes Booth did in fact make his first stop at the Surrattsville tavern along with his accomplice David Herold. The innkeeper, John Lloyd, gave them whisky, pistols, and one of two Spencer carbines as well as the field glasses. He claimed Surratt had told him to do this when she arrived earlier that day. They then proceeded to travel south, helped by many of the same Southern sympathizers who had aided John Surratt in his activities as a courier for the Confederacy.

Arrest and trial

While Surratt was being questioned by police in her boarding house, Lewis Powell, the former John Mosby's Ranger, who had attempted to assassinate Secretary of State Seward, appeared at her door. Although witnesses testified she had met Powell several times, she denied ever having seen him before, thus linking her further to the conspiracy.

Held in military custody under sweltering conditions, Mary Surratt had her head enclosed in a padded canvas bag to prevent a suicide attempt. She was also kept manacled. She was constantly guarded by four soldiers. For two weeks after her arrest and before her trial, she was held on board a warship that was being used as a prison for the conspirators. Her cell only had a straw pallet and a bucket as furniture. During their trial, Surratt and the other alleged conspirators were taken to the old arsenal where the Military Tribunal took place. During the trial, a newspaper described her as a rather attractive five foot six inch buxom forty year old widow. She was the only woman conspirator and the oldest on trial. She and Lewis Powell received the most media attention. It was popularly believed that Mary was on trial as a means of forcing her son out of hiding. That did not happen, and she was found guilty by the military court and sentenced on June 30, 1865, to be "hanged by the neck til' she be dead" for treason, conspiracy, and plotting murder. Military tribunals had less strict rules of evidence than civilian trials and it was highly irregular for a civilian to be tried by one. Moreover, the government suppressed Booth's diary during the trial, which would have been essential to Surratt's defense since it contained evidence that Booth had planned kidnapping, not murder, but changed his mind on the last day. Surratt may not have known of this and so might not have been guilty of conspiracy to commit murder, one of the crimes of which she was found guilty.

Despite these evidential problems and the desperate pleas of her daughter, President Andrew Johnson signed her death warrant, saying that she had "kept the nest that hatched the egg" and was second only to Booth in the designing of the plot. There is some dispute over whether he ever saw the military judges' recommendation that her sentence be commuted to life of permanent solitary confinement in a pennitentiary.

Because she and several other of the conspirators were Roman Catholics, there was speculation that the assassination was somehow connected to a papal plot. There was still fairly rampant anti-Catholic sentiment in the country at that time.


At noon on July 6, Surratt was informed she would hang to death the next day. She wept profusely. She was joined shortly by a Catholic priest, her daughter Anna, and a few friends. She was allowed to wear looser handcuffs and leg irons during this period, but was kept hooded. She spent the night praying and refused breakfast. Her friends were ordered to leave her at 10:00 on the morning of July 7th, and her heavy manacles were replaced. She spent the final hours of her life with her priest.

On July 7, 1865, around 1:15 P.M., a procession, led by the nearly fainting Mary Surratt consisting of the four condemned prisoners and many guards were led through the courtyard, with their hands manacled and legs chained with heavy irons and 75-pound iron balls, past their own graves, and up the thirteen steps to the gallows to be hanged. Mrs. Surratt had to be supported by two soldiers. The actual gallows was on a ten foot high platform. The hangman had made Surratt's noose with five turns instead of the required eight because he had thought that the government would never hang a woman. He later stated that he thought the knot worked just as well.

Hanging of Mary Surratt

The condemned were seated in chairs while their chains and shoes were removed and their wrists were tied together behind them, their arms were bound to their sides, and their ankles and thighs were tied together. Instead of rope, white cloth was used. Mrs. Surratt wore a long black tightly corsetted dress and black veil. The doomed men and woman were attended by several priests. Mary was actually the tallest of those about to hang, other than Paine. Over one thousand men, women, and children came to watch them die. The condemned men and woman were then moved up to the break, the nooses were placed around their necks, and thin white cotton hoods were placed over their heads. The hoods were not a mercy for the condemned, as they could easily see through them, but to prevent the spectators from seeing the lolling tongues and blue faces of the condemned as they died. The soldier who was preparing Surratt placed the knot behind her left ear to quicken her death but it would slip back behind her neck as the drop fell. General Winfield Scott Hancock read out the death sentences in alphabetical order. He then clapped his hands three times, and four members of Company F of the Fourteenth Veteran Reserves knocked out the supporting post releasing the platform. The conspirators dropped about five to six feet, which proved insufficient to break their necks. Mrs. Surratt appeared to have been knocked unconscious by the fall and effects of the rope. She died relatively quickly, and only strained slightly against her restraints and made wheezing and gagging noises for less than three minutes (in comparison with Powell, who clearly struggled for over five minutes).

She and the other convicts were pronounced dead and cut down at 2:15. She was 42 years old. Her last words, spoken to a guard as he put the noose around her neck, were "please don't let me fall." She was executed along with Powell (also known as Payne), Herold (who stayed with Booth until his death in a Virginia tobacco barn), and George Atzerodt (a German immigrant from Port Tobacco, Maryland, who was tasked with killing Vice President Johnson, a mission he failed to complete).


All of the bodies were stripped naked (the clothes were given to charity), wrapped in sheets, and placed in simple pine coffins with a glass vial containing their names to help identify the bodies. They were all then buried in shallow graves next to the prison walls. Several pieces of the rope that had ended Surratt's life and locks of her hair were sold as souvenirs.

Four years later Anna Surratt made a successful plea to the government for her mother's remains. Today, Mary Surratt is buried in Mount Olivet Cemetery in Washington, D.C., 1300 Bladensburg Road, NE. Her headstone reads simply "MRS. SURRATT." Anna Surratt and Isaac Surratt were buried on each side of their mother. John Surratt was buried in Baltimore. John Lloyd, whose testimony possibly sealed Mary's fate, is buried less than 100 yards south of her in the same cemetery. (His simple tombstone is marked John M. Lloyd).

§U.S. Economy

Newly-created national paper money was used to pay for the unprecedented cost - $3.4 billion in 1865 dollars or $50 billion today of the Civil War.

Congressman James Garfield alluded to the oil craze in a letter to a former staff officer: 'I have conversed on the general question of oil with a number of members who are in the business, for you know the fever has assailed Congress in no mild form ... Oil, not cotton, is King now, in the world of commerce.

§U.S. Law

March 3 - The U.S. Congress authorizes formation of the Freedmen's Bureau.

June 19 - American Civil War: Union Major General Gordon Granger lands at Galveston, Texas and informs the people of Texas of the Emancipation Proclamation. (an event now celebrated each year as Juneteenth).

November 10 - Major Henry Wirz, the superintendent of a prison camp in Andersonville, Georgia, is hanged, becoming the only American Civil War soldier to be executed for war crimes.

December 11 - The U.S. Congress creates the House Appropriations Committee and the Committee on Banking and Commerce, reducing the tasks of the Committee on Ways and Means.

December 18 - The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (which forever abolishes slavery) is declared ratified by 3/4 of the states of the United States.

§U.S. Politics

March 4 - U.S. President Abraham Lincoln is inaugurated for a second term; Andrew Johnson becomes Vice President.

April 14 - U. S. President Abraham Lincoln is shot at Ford's Theatre in Washington, D.C. by John Wilkes Booth.

April 14 - U.S. Secretary of State William H. Seward and his family are attacked in his home by Lewis Powell.

April 15 - Vice President Andrew Johnson becomes the 17th President of the United States, upon the death of President Abraham Lincoln.

April 18 - Confederate President Jefferson Davis and his entire cabinet arrive in Charlotte with a contingent of 1,000 soldiers.

Andrew Johnson was a U.S. Senator from Tennessee at the time of the secession of the southern states. He was the only Southern Senator not to quit his post upon secession, and became the most prominent War Democrat from the South. In 1862 Lincoln appointed Johnson military governor of Tennessee, where he proved energetic and effective in fighting the rebellion. Lincoln selected Johnson for the Vice President slot in 1864 on the National Union Party ticket. As president he took charge of Presidential Reconstruction — the first phase of Reconstruction — which lasted until the Radical Republicans gained control of Congress in the 1866 elections. His conciliatory policies towards the South, his hurry to reincorporate the former Confederates back into the union, and his vetoes of civil rights bills embroiled him in a bitter dispute with the Radical Republicans. The Radicals in the House of Representatives impeached him in 1868; he was the first President to be impeached, but he was acquitted by a single vote in the Senate.

May 5 - Jefferson Davis meets with his Confederate Cabinet (14 officials) for the last time, in Washington, Georgia, and the Confederate Government is officially dissolved.

§U.S. States

February 22 - Tennessee adopts a new constitution that abolishes slavery.

Mormon colonists founded St. Thomas at the confluence of the Colorado and Virgin Rivers in Nevada. It was abandoned in 1871 CE

§Southeast Asia


§Cambodian Politics

Norodom became king of Cambodia. He moved the capital from Udong City to Phnom Penh. As Norodom took power, Cambodia was occupied and governed by neighboring countries . The population of Cambodia had declined to around one million people.

§Cambodian Culture

Phnom Penh during this period is described as having rows of bamboo huts about 4 feet off the ground, having wood tile roofs, along the Sap River bank. The population of the capital was around 10,000 made up of Cambodian, Chinese, Vietnamese, Malaysian, Thai, Indian, and Laotian people. The length of the city was around two and a half miles long with a single inner city road along Sap river bank (Now: Quay Preah Sisowath). Travel along the road was by foot or water buffalo cart. In 1866 CE the city was divided into three villages.

§South America

May 1 - The Triple Alliance of Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay against Paraguay is formally signed; the War of the Triple Alliance has already begun.

June 11 - Battle of Riachuelo: The Brazilian Navy squadron defeats the Paraguayan Navy.

November 26 - Battle of Papudo: The Spanish ship Covadonga is captured by the Chileans and the Peruvians, north of Valparaiso, Chile.

§South Pacific


July 31 - The first narrow gauge mainline railway in the world opens at Grandchester, Australia.


April - Four whalers -- three of U.S. registry and one of Hawaiian registry, were sunk by the Confederate raider Shenandoah. The Shenandoah attacked and burned the whalers during its first stop in the Pacific. Gen. Robert E. Lee already had surrendered at Appomattox, but the ship's captain, James Waddell, didn't learn of the war's end until several months later.

§New Zealand

The East Cape War, sometimes also called the East Coast War, refers to a series of conflicts that were fought in the North Island of New Zealand from about April 13th 1865 to June 1868. There were at least three separate unrelated campaigns fought in the area during a period of relative peace between the main clashes of the New Zealand land wars, between the end of the Invasion of the Waikato, and beginning of Te Kooti's War. Although separate, they have all come to be known together as the East Cape War.

All of these conflicts stem from a common cause, the arrival of the Pai Marire Movement or Hau Hauism from the Taranaki region around 1865. Originally Pai Marire was a peaceful religion, a combination of Christianity and traditional Māori beliefs, but it quickly evolved into a violent and vehemently anti-European (Pākehā) movement. The arrival of the Hau Hau in the East Cape effectively destabilized the whole region causing great alarm among the settlers and also seriously disrupting Māori society because of its disregard for traditional tribal structures. During this period the New Zealand Government was inadvertently helping Pai Marire recruitment by the wholesale confiscation of Māori land, a policy that understandably generated enormous resentment among the Māori.


April 15 - Abraham Lincoln, 16th President of the United States, was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth.


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