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§Of World Interest

James Joule quantifies the conversion of work into heat.



August 8 - Natal (in South Africa) is made a British colony


§Hong Kong

June 26 - Hong Kong is proclaimed a British Crown Colony

§Central America


Two men served as head of state of Nicaragua this year.

Juan de Dios Orozco (acting) (1 April 1843 - 31 May 1843)

Manuel Pérez (31 May 1843 - 4 November 1844)



January 4 - Gaetano Donizetti's opera "Don Pasquale," premieres in Paris


January 2 - Wagner's opera "Der Fliegende Hollander" premieres, Dresden

The sarcophagus of Charlemagne in Aachen was considered to have offending nudity and was thus an attempt was made to move it to the upper part of the church. When ropes broke the sarcophagus was badly damaged.

§Great Britain

February 14 – The event that inspired the Beatles song Being for the Benefit of Mr. Kite! is held in England.

The first tunnel under the Thames River is finished.

The world's first commercial Christmas cards are printed by Sir Henry Cole in London.

December 19 – Charles Dickens' A Christmas Carol is first published.


September 3 - Popular uprising in Athens, Greece, including citizens and military captains, to require from King Otto to issue a liberal Constitution to the state, which was governed since independence (1830) by various domestic and foreign centres of profits.


February 11 - Opera "I Lombardi," premieres in Milan

June 24 - Vincenzo Soliva decrees no Jew can live outside of ghetto in Italy


January 4 - Royal Academy (Technical Hague court) Delft opens

December 6 - Amsterdam-Utrecht railway opens


Physicians told 64-year-old Countess Rosa Branicka of Poland that she was suffering from breast cancer and that surgery was mandatory. But the countess refused their ministrations and instead embarked on a journey through Germany, Switzerland, and France to acquire a collection of surgical instruments with which she removed the tumor herself, in a Paris hotel room. More amazing, Countess Branicka recovered quickly and lived to be 82.


Dr. Alexander Wood of Edinburgh discovers a new technique of administering morphine, injection with a syringe. He finds the effects of morphine on his patients instantaneous and three times more potent.

§Scottish Religion

May 18 – The Disruption in Edinburgh of the Free Church of Scotland from the Church of Scotland.

§North America


June 6 – In Barbados, Samuel Jackman Prescod is the first non-white person elected to the House of Assembly.


March 15 – Victoria, British Columbia, is founded by the Hudson's Bay Company as a trading post and fort.

§United States

February 2 - U.S. and British settlers in Oregon Country choose government committee

February 6 – The Virginia Minstrels perform the first minstrel show (Bowery Amphitheatre, New York City).

March 3 - Congress appropriates $30,000 "to test the practicability of establishing a system of electro-magnetic telegraphs" by the US

May 22 – The first major wagon train headed for the American Northwest sets out with one thousand pioneers from Elm Grove, Missouri on the Oregon Trail.

June 1 - Sojourner Truth leaves New York to begin her career as antislavery activist

July 2 - An alligator falls from sky during a Charleston South Carolina thunderstorm

August 15 - National black convention meets (Buffalo New York)

October 13 – In New York City, Henry Jones and 11 others found B'nai B'rith (the oldest Jewish service organization in the world).

§U.S. Entertainment

Edgar Allan Poe's short story The Tell-Tale Heart is first published. The story was first published in James Russell Lowell's The Pioneer in January 1843.

§U.S. Business and Industry

Volney Palmer opens the first advertising agency in Philadelphia.

After the Chippewa ceded their lands around Lake Superior the Copper Rush was on. The first mining rush came to Copper Harbor. All travel was by boat, there were no roads. Copper Harbor became a bustling sea town.

Nancy Johnson developed and patented the first hand-crank ice cream maker. She sold the patent for $200. It was still called the Johnson Patent Ice-Cream Freezer.

§U.S. Politics

March 7 - First Catholic governor in U.S., Edward Kavanagh of Maine, takes office

March 14 - Boston conducts its 1st town meeting (Faneuil Hall)

July 5 - Committee of 9 appointed to establish civil government in Oregon Country

In the fall of 1843, James K. Polk appeared to be politically dead. Despite seven terms in Congress, two of them as Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, Polk's attempt to win reelection as governor of Tennessee had failed miserably - not just once but twice.

§U.S. Religion


September 30 - Diocese of Chicago, including all of Illinois, is created by the Vatican. Bishop William Quarter and his brother, Rev. Walter Quarter, are assigned to the diocese, headquartered at St. Mary’s.


October 13 – In New York City, Henry Jones and 11 others found B'nai B'rith (the oldest Jewish service organization in the world).

Millerism March 21 – "The world does not end, contrary to the first prediction by American preacher William Miller."

Despite the urging of his supporters, William Miller never personally set an exact date for the expected Second Advent. However, in response to their urgings he did narrow the time-period to sometime in the Jewish year 1843, stating: “My principles in brief, are, that Jesus Christ will come again to this earth, cleanse, purify, and take possession of the same, with all the saints, sometime between March 21, 1843 and March 21, 1844” (5603 or 5604 in the Hebrew year). March 21, 1844 passed without incident, and the majority of Millerites maintained their faith. On March 25, Miller wrote to Himes, “I am still looking for the Dear Savior…. The time, as I have calculated it, is now filled up; and I expect every moment to see the Savior descend from heaven. I have now nothing to look for but this glorious hope.” As George R. Knight states, the movement’s survival was a result of the fact that, “the Millerite leaders had been ‘soft’ on the time…. They allowed for the possibility of small errors in their calculations and even in some of their historic dates.” In fact, on February 28, Miller himself had written, “If Christ comes, as we expect, we will sing the song of victory soon; if not, we will watch, and pray, and preach until he comes, for soon our time, and all prophetic days, will have been filled.

Mormonism May 1 - The Mormon publication, Times and Seasons announced that six ancient brass plates had been discovered at Kinderhook, Illinois. they were brought to Joseph Smith for inspection and translation. These plated were later proven to be forgeries.

July 12 - Joseph Smith is said to have received a revelation that is much more widely accepted by historians. The revelation was supposedly dictated by Smith to his scribe William Clayton, and was shared with Emma Smith that day. Clayton wrote that day in his journal:

“Wednesday 12th This A.M, I wrote a Revelation consisting of 10 pages on the order of the priesthood, showing the designs in Moses, Abraham, David and Solomon having many wives & concubines &c. After it was wrote Prests. Joseph & Hyrum presented it and read it to [Emma] who said she did not believe a word of it and appeared very rebellious. [Joseph]...appears much troubled about [Emma]”

In the text of the revelation, Christ commands the practice of polygamy or plural marriage in a "new and an everlasting covenant" and declares that anyone who rejects the new practices will suffer damnation and will not "be permitted to enter into my glory." The 1843 revelation also states that the first wife's consent should be sought before a man married another wife, but also declares that Christ will "destroy" the first wife if she does not consent to the plural marriage, and that the husband is exempt from asking his wife's consent in the future.

The revelation states that plural wives "are given unto him to multiply and replenish the earth, according to my commandment, and to fulfill the promise which was given by my Father before the foundation of the world, and for their exaltation in the eternal worlds, that they may bear the souls of men." The revelation was not made public to the LDS church as a whole until Brigham Young revealed it in 1852 CE. Young claimed that the original had been burned by Smith's widow Emma Smith, though Emma denied that the document ever existed and said of the story told by Young: "It is false in all its parts, made out of whole cloth, without any foundation in truth." Published affidavits by eyewitnesses accusing Church leaders of following the teaching and engaging in polygamy had resulted in Smith's murder by a mob in 1844 CE. The revelation was codified in Mormon canon as part of the Doctrine and Covenants 132 in the 1870s, though it was rejected by the RLDS Church as not originating with Smith. Emma Smith said that the first she knew of the 1843 revelation was when she read of it in Orson Pratt's booklet The Seer in 1853.

In December 1843, Joseph Smith petitioned Congress for the right to make Nauvoo an independent federal territory with the right to call out federal troops in its defense. Then, probably unwisely, Smith also decided to desert both Whigs and Democrats, and announce his own candidacy for President of the United States, sending out the apostles to advertise his campaign. Meanwhile, he made plans to scout possible sites for a large Mormon settlement in Oregon or California.


The book A Holy, Sacred and Divine Roll and Book; From the Lord God of Heaven, to the Inhabitants of Earth was published. Because of its mention of the appearance by angels, and its influence on at least one Mormon founder, it may have affected the formation of the Mormon church.



The Danish government re-establishes the Althing in Iceland as an advisory body.

August 15 – Tivoli Gardens, one of the oldest still intact amusement parks in the world, opens in Copenhagen, Denmark.

November 11 – Hans Christian Andersen's The Ugly Duckling is first published.



August 15 – Tivoli Gardens, one of the oldest still intact amusement parks in the world, opens in Copenhagen, Denmark.

November 11 – Hans Christian Andersen's The Ugly Duckling is first published. The story is believed to be autobiographical as the writer struggled with both his looks and his homosexuality in a country that was not accepting of same sex relationships at the time.


The Danish government re-establishes the Althing in Iceland as an advisory body.

§South America


Argentina supports Rosas of Uruguay and begins a siege of Montevideo.


May 23 – Chile takes possession of the Strait of Magellan.


Argentina supports Rosas of Uruguay and begins a siege of Montevideo.


Germans from the Black Forest region of Southern Baden migrate to Venezuela.

§South Pacific


The British occupy Hawaii for a five month period.

Mauna Loa volcano erupted on the island of Hawaii.

November 28 – Ka La Ku'oko'a (Hawaiian Independence Day): The Kingdom of Hawai`i is officially recognized by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and July Monarchy France as an independent nation.

§New Caledonia

Missionaries from France began arriving on the island and France claimed the islands as part of an attempt by Napoleon III to rival the British colonies in Australia and New Zealand.


The Queen's Protestant advisor, Pritchard, convinced her to display the Tahitian flag in place of the flag of the Protectorate. By way of reprisal, Admiral Dupetit-Thouars announced the annexation of the Kingdom of Pōmare on the 6th November 1843 and set up the governor Armand Joseph Bruat there as the chief of the new colony. He threw Pritchard into prison, and later sent him back to Britain. The annexation caused the Queen to be exiled to the Leeward Islands.


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