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Cape Verde Islands

1832-33 Famine in Cape Verde. The ship Charles out of Boston arrived in Cape Verde carrying supplies donated by the people of Boston, Portland, Newburyport, Charlestown and Ipswich. Later that year the ship Citizen passing in Cape Verde also discharged some of its provisions. 30,000 people died from the famine. Santo Antao was the worst affected where 11,000 died out of a population of 26,000.

Central America

El Salvador

In 1832, Anastasio Aquino led an indigenous revolt against Criollos and Mestizos in Santiago Nonualco, a small town in the province of San Vicente. The source of the discontent of the indigenous people was lack of land to cultivate. The problem of land distribution has been the source of many political conflicts in Salvadoran history.



December 4 - Battle of Antwerp: The last remaining Dutch enforcement, the citadel, is under French attack.

December 23 - Battle of Antwerp ended. The Netherlands lost Antwerp.


February 12 – Cholera breaks out in London, claiming at least 3,000 victims. It spreads to France and North America later this year.

July 19 - Passage of the Anatomy Act calling for the licensing of physicians to perform anatomy. The nineteenth century ushered in a new-found medical interest in detailed anatomy thanks to an increase in the importance of surgery. [1] In order to study anatomy, human cadavers were needed and thus ushered in the practice of grave digging. Before 1832, the Murder Act 1752 stipulated that only the corpses of executed murderers could be used for dissection. By the early nineteenth century, the rise of medical science – coinciding with a reduction in the number of executions – had caused demand to outstrip supply.


June 5 - An anti-monarchist riot briefly broke out in Paris.

June 6 - The Barricades fell and the Student Uprisings of 1832 ended.

French chemist, Charles Gergardt experiments with salicin and creates salicylic acid, the foundation for aspirin.


May 30 - Hambacher Fest, a demonstration for civil liberties and national unity ends with no result.


The Treaty of London created an independent Kingdom of Greece. Otto of Wittelsbach, Prince of Bavaria was chosen King. On May 11th, Greece was recognized as a sovereign nation. The Treaty of Constantinople ended the Greek War of Independence the following July.


September - Belvedere College, Dublin, is founded by the order of the Jesuit Society of Ireland.


Cholera Asiatica broke out in the overcrowded neighborhoods of Utrecht, Netherlands. The epidemic was largely due to poor hygienic conditions, including the lack of fresh water. Raw sewage was pumped into the canals and grachts (smaller canals) of Utrecht. The market area known as Wijk C was hit particularly hard due to its dense population.


Torquemada's tomb was ransacked, and his bones stolen and burned.

Middle East


May 27 - War between the Ottoman Empire and Egypt. The Egyptians, aided by Maronites, seize Acre after a seven-month siege.


June 15 - Seizure of Damascus by Egyptian forces.

Battle of Konya

The Battle of Konya was fought in December 21, 1832, between Egypt and the Ottoman Empire. The Egyptians were led by Ibrahim Pasha, while the Ottomans were led by Reshid Pasha. The Egyptians were victorious.


The Egyptian campaign to occupy Syria began on October 29, 1831. Two armies set out from Egypt, one by land under General Ibrahim Yakan, and the other by sea, landing at Jaffa, under Ibrahim Pasha. The Egyptians rapidly occupied Jerusalem and the coastal regions of Palestine and Lebanon, except for Acre, which had impregnable walls and a strong garrison of about 3,000 hardened fighters with much artillery.

May 10 – The Egyptians, aided by Maronites, seize Acre from the Ottoman Empire after a 7-month siege. Acre, under the Ottoman Paha Abdullah Elgazar, held out against a long and bloody siege before finally falling to the Egyptians on May 27, 1832.

Several battles between the Egyptians and Ottomans took place in Syria. At a village south of Homs on the Orontes, on April 14, 1832 the Egyptians under Ibrahim Pasgha defeated an Ottoman force of 15,000 under Othman Pasha. After reducing Acre, the Egytptians occupied Damascus on June 14, 1832. A new Ottoman army under Mohammed Pasha advanced south to Homs, and a major battle took place on July 8, 1832 on the southern approaches to that city. The Ottomans were routed with large losses and the Egyptians occupied Homs on July 9; then Aleppo on July 17, and Antioch on July 28. On July 29 another major battle took place at the pass of Beilan through the Taurus mountains, where the Egyptians defeated an Ottoman force of 45,000 equipped with 160 guns, under Hussein Pasha and captured 25 guns along with considerable war booty. The Egyptians occupied Beilan on July 30, then Tarsus and Adana on July 31. At this point the Egyptian army halted, having occupied the Arabic-speaking regions it had intended to annex to Egypt, and awaited instuctions from Ibrahim's father, Muhammad Ali Pasha in Cairo.

In the ensuing lull, the Sultan recalled the Grand Vizier Reshid Pasha and organised a new army of 80,000 to repel the Egyptians. Anticipating a final major battle, Ibrahim set about to capture territory in Southern Turkey to secure his supply lines. The next clash, the final battle of the campaign of 1831/1832, came at Konya on December 18-21, 1832. Several minor clashes between advanced elements and scouting parties of the two armies took place on December 18 and 19, and the main battle described below was on December 21.

Opposing armies

Egyptian Forces: Ibrahim Pasha commanded a total of about 50,000 men in all of Greater Syria, including recent Syrian recruits and about 7,000 Arab auxiliaries and irregulars. The regular forces were organised into ten infantry brigades, twelve cavalry brigades and the artillery and engineers. Much of this force was spread out on his supply lines, and only 27,000 regular troops were available at the battle of Konya. However, these were the most experienced and disciplined of his army. At the battle, Ibrahim had 20 infantry battalions, 28 cavalry squadrons, and 48 guns.

Ottoman Forces: Reshid Pasha commanded an army of 80,000 from various Ottoman provinces, including many Albanians and Bosnians. At the battle Reshid had a total of about 54,000 men, of which about 20,000 were irregulars: 54 infantry battalions, 28 cavalry squadrons, and 100 guns.

Field and order of battle

The main battle took place on December 21, 1832, astride the Konya-Istanbul road, just north of the ancient walled town of Konya, which, in 1832, had a population of about 20,000. The battlefield is bounded on the west by hills and on the east by marshes and swamps, with a plateau about two miles wide in between. The Egyptian army had its back to the town and faced North, and the Ottoman army approached from the North astride the road, facing South. December 21 was an intensely foggy day.

Ibrahim's army was organised into three rows astride the road. The first row consisted of the 13th and 18th Infantry Brigades with three artillery batteries under Selim Elmansterly. The second row, five hundred paces behind the first, consisted of the 12th and 14th Infantry Brigades with two artillery batteries under Soliman Elfaransawy (Elfaransawy = "the Frenchman" the former Colonel Seves). The third row, consisted of the Guards Brigade and one artillery battery in reserve and the 1st and 2nd Cavalry Brigades, under Selim bey. Ibrahim posted two battalions in square formation at the flanks to guard against encirclement.

Reshid's army was organised into four rows advancing astride the road. Leading the advance were two regular cavalry brigades and the Guards Infantry brigade in open formation. These were followed by a second row of two infantry and two cavalry brigades, then a third and fourth row each consisting of an infantry brigade. Large numbers of irregulars made up the rear. Artillery was distributed amongst the army.

At about noon the advancing Ottoman's artillery opened fire when the front lines were about 600 yards apart. With the heavy fog, the range was spotty, and the Egyptian artillery held their fire until they could guess the Ottomans' positions from the sound of their cannonade, and so could find their range more precisely. As the artillery exchange thundered on, Ibrahim advanced with his scouts to a well East of the road to survey the Ottoman positions. During a momentary lifting of the fog, he noticed a gap in the Ottoman formation between their cavalry and infantry on their left flank, to the East. He rapidly called his reserves (the Guards Brigade and the two cavalry Brigades) and personally led them into this gap between the road and the marshes, causing confusion in the Ottoman left flank by this sudden onslaught, as some of their cavalry was trapped and scattered in the foggy marshes. As the Ottoman left flank collapsed, the grand vizier Reshid Pasha personally moved to their midst to rally them, but in the foggy confusion found himself surrounded by Egyptians and captured. The capture of their supreme commander deepened the confusion amongst the Ottomans, and some units lost cohesion and broke ranks as the Egyptian artillery and cavalry advanced around their left flank to their rear, enveloping the now disorganised units and continuing a relentless slaughter from three directions, South, East and North. As night fell, the new Ottoman commander managed to rally some units and organised a desperate counter attack from the West against the Egyptian left flank, but this failed as the Egyptian center wheeled to face them with an organised barrage of artillery and as this attack broke, the remaining Ottomans scattered.


Konya was Ibrahim's greatest victory. He lost 262 dead and 530 wounded, whereas the Ottomans lost 3000 dead and over 5000 taken prisoner, including many senior officers. The Egyptians remained in possession of the field and took 46 guns, and the Ottoman army was scattered. Nothing remained between Ibrahim's army and Istanbul after the battle. However, it was time for politics, and Ibrahim's father, Muhammad Ali parleyed with Sultan Mahmoud and with the European Powers, and ended up signing the Peace Agreement of Kotahiya, whereby the Sultan ceded greater Syria to Muhammad Ali for his lifetime, and ceded Egypt's rule to Muhammad Ali's dynasty in perpetuity, with nominal vassalhood to the Ottoman Sultan, but de facto independence. This dynasty only ended in July, 1952 with the abdication of King Farouk after the army coup led by Colonel Gamal Abd el Nasser.

As a postscript to Konya, it should be added that seven years later, the Ottoman Sultan Mahmoud abbrogated the Peace of Kotahiya and attacked the Egyptian forces again, but was again routed by the Egyptians at the battle of Nizib, on the frontier between Turkey and Syria, on June 24, 1839.

North America

United States

Gen. William Huntington Russell and Alfonso Taft, grandfather of William Howard Taft, former President of the U.S., founded a secret society at Yale called SKULL AND BONES, or "The Brotherhood of Death". Gen. Huntington's brother-in-law, Samuel Russell, founded "Russell and Co.", the world's largest opium smuggling syndicate at the time. This provided them with a huge fortune in the millions.

February 9 – The Florida Legislative Council grants a city charter for Jacksonville, Florida.

William Huntington, an American who had studied in Germany, founded the "Skull and Bones" (Chapter 322 of the Bavarian Illuminati) at Yale University in 1832. The members wore a death's head on their chests and were sworn to secrecy on pain of death. "The Order" became the preserve of the leading New England families, many wealthy from the Opium trade. These include the Whitneys, Tafts, Buckleys, Lowells, Sloans, Coffins, and Harrimans.

March 24 - In Hiram, Ohio a group of men beat, tar and feather Mormon leader Joseph Smith, Jr..

Black Hawk War

The Black Hawk War was fought in 1832 in the Midwestern United States. The war was named for Black Hawk, the leader of a band of Sauk and Fox Indians, who fought against the United States Army and militia from Illinois and the Michigan Territory (present-day Wisconsin) for possession of lands in the area.

Responding to Governor Reynolds' call, General Edmund Pendleton Gaines brought his army troops from St. Louis, Missouri to Saukenuk to insist upon Black Hawk's immediate departure. Black Hawk refused but soon returned, without bloodshed, across the Mississippi, threatened by Gaines' troops and an additional 1,400 militia called up by Reynolds. At this point, Black Hawk signed a surrender agreement in which he promised to remain west of the Mississippi. This did not last long, however.

On 6 April 1832, chafing under the rule of Keokuk and stirred up by promises of British support by Sauk chief Neapope and of welcome by the Winnebago prophet White Cloud in Illinois, Black Hawk and his group of 1,000, called the “British band,” returned to Illinois in an attempt to reclaim their homeland. The governor, considering this an invasion, mobilized 1,600 men and called for additional support from U.S. troops. Brevet Brigadier General Henry Atkinson was given charge for prosecuting the war. Federal authorities, along with Sauk and Fox tribal councils, ordered Black Hawk and his band to retreat west of the Mississippi, but they refused to leave. Soon after, Black Hawk was informed that none of the Illinois or Michigan Indian tribes, or the Canadian government, would aid his band. Facing starvation, Black Hawk decided to surrender and return across the Mississippi. By that time, however, events had overtaken him.


The governor issued a proclamation on 16 April, mustering five brigades of volunteers to form at Beardstown and to head north to force Black Hawk out of Illinois. Although federal army troops were also involved, the militia were the majority. On 9 May, a small Illinois militia battalion began an aggressive pursuit from the army's point of rendezvous on the Rock River at Dixon. After a strenuous march (the militia was mounted and followed by several supply wagons) the Americans finally came into contact with Black Hawk and his warriors north of the Kishwaukee River near present day Stillman Valley. When the militia killed a member of a three-man parley that had been sent by Neapope, Black Hawk rallied 40 mounted warriors and attacked the militia camp at dusk. Although the militia numbered more than 275 men, cohesion rapidly collapsed, and they fled to Dixon's Ferry, some 35 miles (56 km) away. This would become known as the Battle of Stillman's Run.

Soon after, the exaggerated claim that 2,000 “bloodthirsty warriors were sweeping all Northern Illinois with the bosom of destruction” sent shock waves of terror through the region. After this initial skirmish, Black Hawk led his band to the Michigan Territory. On 19 May, the militia traveled up the Rock River in search of Black Hawk. Several small skirmishes ensued when they encountered the Indians raiding the Illinois settlements in Northern Illinois. Following these skirmishes, the governor recruited additional militia forces, raising the number to 4,000. With the one-month enlistment for militia already expired, the governor mustered them out of service on 27 May and 28 May. The federal government then ordered General Winfield Scott with 1,000 regulars and 300 mounted volunteers to resume the chase. For the moment it looked as though Atkinson's role in this campaign would end soon, but a cholera epidemic struck much of the United States. Winfield Scott's troops would bring it over from the east into Illinois.


General Scott assembled a force of 1,000 federal troops. They embarked on boats from Buffalo, New York, making their way towards Chicago. To wide-spread horror, cholera was reported among the troops. The expedition was doomed. Troops became ill, and many of them died. At each place the vessels landed, the sick were deposited and soldiers deserted, only to further spread the illness to other parts of the country. By the time the expedition landed in Chicago, there were only two hundred effective troops left. Scott felt the need to cancel his plans for an immediate march into the war zone. Instead he waited for reinforcements, supplies, and tended to his stricken men. Winfield Scott arrived too late for military action, but he played an important part in drafting the terms of peace. But for the moment, Atkinson was given a second chance to capture Black Hawk.

Final confrontation

From the end of June to the beginning of August, the federal troops pursued Black Hawk and his group throughout northern Illinois, and into part of the Michigan Territory which is now Wisconsin. They remained on his trail but always seemed to be two to three days behind. A brigade of Illinois militia and a squadron of Michigan Territory militia collectively lead by Gen. Henry and Col. Henry Dodge caught up with the British band at the Wisconsin Heights where a battle ensued. Despite high casualties (about 70 killed) among the warriors, the majority of the band safely crossed the Wisconsin River. Milita casualties were low (one dead and perhaps 7 or 8 wounded) and the victory at the Battle of Wisconsin Heights restored the morale among many of the troops who had traveled hundreds of miles without even seeing the foe. Neapope, the Civil Chief of the band, left Black Hawk before the battle and Black Hawk split the remaining group, sending many of the less capable downriver in hastily built canoes. This group was intercepted by U.S. troops and hostile Indians, and many were killed. The remainder continued an overland retreat towards the west.

On 1 August, with his people depleted and hungry, Black Hawk reached the Mississippi River several miles south of the confluence of the Mississippi and Bad Axe River. The steamboat Warrior, a vessel which had been chartered by the U.S. Army to communicate with Sioux tribal leaders north of present-day La Crosse, Wisconsin, discovered them quite by accident.

Black Hawk waved a white flag of surrender, but the steamboat captain feared a ruse; he believed warriors were readying their weapons in the woodline. He opened fire with the boat's single cannon. Leaving several dead, the steamboat returned to Prairie du Chien for more fuel. Black Hawk and his family along with about a dozen followers left during the night, heading north to hide among Winnebago. Those left on the banks of the Mississippi prepared to cross the river the next morning. On 2 August, the army finally reached the heights near the river. A small party of Indians decoyed Atkinson's main attack north from the main band on the river bank. General Henry's brigade, which was in the rear of Atkinson's column, discovered the main trail of the Black Hawk's group by accident and followed it down to the crossing site. Atkinson's troops killed the decoy party, then quickly marched to the sound of Henry's volleys. The U.S. Regulars, by now exhausted, ragged and many shoeless, lost their sense of discipline and pitched into the fighting with a will. The battle dissolved into a massacre. At least 150 of Black Hawk's people were killed, with hundreds more taken prisoner. Eight American soldiers were killed. Those that did escape across the river were soon attacked by the Sioux, an old enemy of the Sauk.

On 27 August, Black Hawk surrendered to the Winnebago. He was dressed in new clothes of white deerskin and was delivered to the Indian Agent at Prairie du Chien. On 21 September, a peace treaty was signed with the Sauk and Fox Tribes and Black Hawk. Black Hawk never again attempted to regain his homeland.

"Duffy's Cut," as it's now called, is a short walk from a suburban cul-de-sac in Malvern, an affluent town off the fabled Main Line. Twin brothers Bill and Frank Watson believe 57 Irish immigrants met violent deaths there after a cholera epidemic struck in 1832. Remains were found in 2010 where forensic evidence showed the men likely met violent deaths.

U.S. Politics

The Anti-Masonic party conducted the first presidential nominating convention in U.S. history in the 1832 elections, nominating William Wirt (a former Mason) for President and Amos Ellmaker for Vice President in Baltimore.

December 3 – U.S. presidential election, 1832: Andrew Jackson is re-elected president.

U.S. Religion

During his 1832 visit to Missouri, Joseph Smith had to dampen hard feelings among his subordinates there, but he was also able to found the first Mormon newspaper, the Evening and Morning Star, at the time the westernmost newspaper in the United States.

The rough pioneers of Missouri found Joseph's prophecies about Zion threatening. They tarred and feathered two church leaders, and vigilantes destroyed Mormon homes, effectively forcing the Saints to move to Clay County. Smith tried to organize a military response from Kirtland—a revelation had told him that "the redemption of Zion must needs come by power"—but the trek of what came to be called Zion's Camp ended with nothing accomplished.

Twenty-six-year-old Joseph Smith led an organization of about a thousand followers. Not only were the burdens of his office beyond his experience, some disaffected former followers accused Smith of dictatorial ambition, deceiving the credulous, and the intent to take their frontier property. On March 24, they encouraged a mob to drag Smith and Sidney Rigdon from their beds and beat them unconscious. Joseph was tarred and feathered and narrowly escaped being castrated. The attack encouraged Joseph to accelerate a trip to Missouri.

South America


February 12 - Ecuador annexes the Galapagos Islands.

South Pacific

New Zealand

Concerned about the exploitation of Māori by Europeans, the British Colonial Office appointed James Busby as British Resident to New Zealand.


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