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1830CE

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§Of World Interest

The first signs of warming from the rise in greenhouse gases which came hand-in-hand with the Industrial Revolution appear as early as 1830 in the tropical oceans and the Arctic according to researchers in 2016.

§Africa

§Algeria

July 5 - France invades Algeria. On the pretext of a slight to their consul, the French invaded Algiers. Directed by Marshall Bugeaud, who became the first Governor-General of Algeria, the conquest was violent, marked by a "scorched earth" policy designed to reduce the power of the Dey; this included massacres, mass rapes, and other atrocities.

§Asia

§China

10,000 chests of opium are sold in China.

§Europe

§Belgium

August 25 - The Belgian Revolution begins. After a performance at the Brussels opera, a riot erupted, quickly followed by uprisings elsewhere in the country. Factories were occupied and machinery destroyed. Order was restored after William committed troops to the Southern Provinces. Rioting continued and the leadership was seized by extremists, who started talk of secession.

An intense battle took place in Brussels and the Northern troops were forced to withdraw, while the States-General in Brussels voted for secession and declared independence. In the aftermath, a National Congress was assembled and William refrained from future military action and appealed to the Great Powers. The resulting London Conference of major European powers recognized Belgian independence.

October 4 - The Provisional Government in Brussels declares the creation of the independent state of Belgium, in revolt against the government of the Netherlands.

December 20 - The independence of Belgium is recognized by the Great Powers.

§France

July 17 - French tailor Barthélemy Thimonnier is granted a patent (#7454) for the first functional sewing machine in France; it chains stitches at 200/minute. Thimonnier's machine used only one thread and a hooked needle that made the same chain stitch used with embroidery. The inventor was almost killed by an enraged group of French tailors who burnt down his garment factory because they feared unemployment as a result of his new invention.

July 27 - France: The July Revolution begins. The French Revolution of 1830, also known as the July Revolution, saw the overthrow of King Charles X of France, the French Bourbon monarch, and the ascent of his cousin Louis-Philippe, the Duc d'Orléans, who himself, after 18 precarious years on the throne, would in turn be overthrown. It marked the shift from one constitutional monarchy, the Bourbon Restoration, to another, the July Monarchy; the transition of power from the House of Bourbon to its cadet branch, the House of Orléans; and the substitution of the principle of popular sovereignty for hereditary right. Supporters of the Bourbon would be called Legitimists, and supporters of Louis-Philippe Orleanists.

August 9 - France: Louis Philippe becomes King of France.

August 13 - France: Duc de Broglie becomes Prime Minister.

November 2 - France: Jacques Laffitte succeeds the Duc de Broglie as Prime Minister.

December 5 - Hector Berlioz's most famous work, Symphonie Fantastique, makes its world premiere in Paris.

§Great Britain

The British dependence on opium for medicinal and recreational use reaches an all time high as 22,000 pounds of opium is imported from Turkey and India.

June 26 - William IV succeeds his brother George IV as King of the United Kingdom.

August 31 - Edwin Beard Budding is granted a patent for the invention of the lawnmower. He also invented the adjustable spanner (crescent wrench).

September 15 - Liverpool and Manchester Railway opens the world's first intercity passenger railway operated solely by steam locomotives).

November 22 - The Whig Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey succeeds Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.

§Greece

February 3 – Greece is liberated from the Ottoman forces as the final result of the Greek War of Independence.

July 20 - Greece grants citizenship to Jews.

§Italy

November 8 - Ferdinand II becomes King of the Two Sicilies.

§Poland

November 29 - The Polish insurrection begins in Warsaw against Russian rule.

§India

July 13 - The General Assembly's Institution, now the Scottish Church College, one of the pioneering institutions that ushered the Bengal Renaissance, is founded by Alexander Duff and Raja Ram Mohan Roy, in Calcutta, India.

Jardine-Matheson & Company of London inherit India and its opium from the British East India Company once the mandate to rule and dictate the trade policies of British India are no longer in effect.

§North America

§United States

The United States Census of 1830 was the fifth Census conducted in the United States. It was conducted on June 1, 1830. It determined the population of the 24 states to be 12,866,020 of which 2,009,043 were slaves. The center of population was about 170 miles (274 km) west of Washington, D.C. in Grant County, Virginia.

§U.S. Law

January 12-January 27 - Robert Y. Hayne of South Carolina debates the question of states' rights vs. federal authority with Daniel Webster of Massachusetts in the United States Congress.

March 12 - Craig vs. Missouri: The United States Supreme Court rules that state loan certificates are unconstitutional.

May 28 - The United States Congress passes the Indian Removal Act.

§U.S. Religion

March 26 - Twenty-four year old Joseph Smith published what he said was a translation of these plates as the Book of Mormon. The same year he organized a new church, which he called the Church of Christ.

On April 6, 1830, Joseph Smith and his followers formally organized as the Church of Christ, and small branches were established in Palmyra, Fayette, and Colesville, New York. There was strong opposition to the church, and in late June, Smith was again brought to court but acquitted. Perhaps it was during this period that Smith and Cowdery later said that they received a visitation from Peter, James, and John, three apostles of Jesus, who appeared to them in order to restore the Melchizedek priesthood, which they said contained the necessary authority to restore Christ's church.

§South America

§Ecuador

May 13 - Ecuador separates from Gran Colombia.

§Uruguay

July 18 - Uruguay adopts its first constitution.

§Sources

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