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1825CE

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§Europe

§England

The first horse-drawn omnibuses established in London.

September 27 – The world's first modern railway, the Stockton and Darlington Railway, opens in England.

§Germany

July 6 – The Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck gains possession of Glücksburg and changes his title to Friedrich Wilhelm, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg. The line of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg later becomes the Royal House of Greece, Denmark and Norway.

§Italy

January 4 – King Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies is succeeded by his son Francis I of the Two Sicilies.

§Netherlands

A major flood in 1825 brought massive destruction to the island of Schockland. A hurricane flooded the whole island and killed 13 islanders.

§North America

§Canada

October 7 – The Miramichi Fire breaks out in New Brunswick.

§Haiti

April 17 – Charles X of France recognizes Haiti, 21 years after it expelled the French following the successful Haitian Revolution, and demands the payment of 150 million gold francs, 30 million of which Haiti must finance through France itself, as down payment.

§United States

February 12 – The Creek cede the last of their lands in Georgia to the United States government, and migrate west.

Early April - Samuel Greene, a seven year old boy, disappeared while playing in the woods of Southeastern, Madison, Indiana. He was never found.

Mid-April - Gertrude Wilcox, a six year old girl vanished from her bed in the middle of the night in Madison, Indiana.

May 20 - A third child was taken from Jeffersonville, Indiana. A few days later the decomposed bodies of 3 children were found by a hunter.

February 9 – After no presidential candidate receives a majority of electoral votes, the United States House of Representatives elects John Quincy Adams President of the United States.

March 4 - John Quincy Adams replaced James Monroe to become the sixth President of the United States. His party affiliations were Federalist, Democratic-Republican, National Republican, and later Whig. Adams was the son of U.S. President John Adams, and Abigail Adams. He is most famous as a diplomat involved in many international negotiations, and for formulating the Monroe Doctrine. As president he proposed a grand program of modernization and educational advancement, but was unable to get it through Congress. Late in life, as a Congressman, he was a leading opponent of the Slave Power, arguing that if a civil war ever broke out the president could abolish slavery by using his war powers, a policy followed by Abraham Lincoln in the Emancipation Proclamation of 1863.

October 26 – The Erie Canal opens, providing passage from Albany, New York to Buffalo and Lake Erie.

§U.S. Religion

May 26 - The American Unitarian Association (AUA) was formed by associated Unitarian congregations. In 1961 CE, it merged with the Universalist Church of America to form the Unitarian Universalist Association.

According to Mortimer Rowe, the Secretary (i.e. chief executive) of the British Unitarians for 20 years, the AUA was founded on the same day as the British and Foreign Unitarian Association: "By a happy coincidence, in those days of slow posts, no transatlantic telegraph, telephone or wireless, our American cousins, in complete ignorance as to the details of what was afoot, though moving towards a similar goal, founded the American Unitarian Association on precisely the same day - May 26, 1825

§Russia

In the autumn of 1825 the Emperor undertook a voyage to the south of Russia due to the increasing illness of his wife. During his trip he himself caught a cold which developed into typhus from which he died in the southern city of Taganrog on 19 November (O.S.)/ 1 December 1825. His two brothers disputed who would become tsar—each wanted the other to become tsar.

When Alexander died on December 1, 1825, the royal guards swore allegiance to Constantine. When Constantine made his renunciation public, and Nicholas, Alexander's brother, stepped forward to assume the throne, the Northern Society acted. With the capital in temporary confusion, and one oath to Constantine having already been sworn, the society scrambled in secret meetings to convince regimental leaders not to swear allegiance to Nicholas. These efforts would culminate in the events of December 14.

On the morning of December 14, 1825, a group of officers commanding about 3,000 men assembled in Senate Square, where they refused to swear allegiance to the new tsar, Nicholas I, proclaiming instead their loyalty to the idea of a Russian constitution. They expected to be joined by the rest of the troops stationed in St. Petersburg, but they were disappointed. Nicholas spent the day gathering a military force, and then attacked with artillery. With the firing of the artillery came the end of the revolt in the north.

On December 14 the leaders (many of whom belonged to the high aristocracy) elected Prince Sergei Trubetskoy as interim dictator and marched to the Senate Square. The subordinate soldiers had to follow suit.

The revolt suffered because those in charge communicated poorly with the soldiers involved in the uprising. Soldiers in St. Petersburg were made to chant "Constantine and Constitution," but when questioned, many of them reportedly professed to believe that "Constitution" was Constantine's wife. This may just be a rumor, however, because in a letter from Peter Kakhovsky to General Levashev, Kakhovsky says, "The story told to Your Excellency that, in the uprising of December 14 the rebels were shouting 'Long live the Constitution!' and that the people were asking 'What is Constitution, the wife of His Highness the Grand Duke?' is not true. It is an amusing invention."

When Prince Trubetskoy failed to turn up at the square, Nicholas sent Count Mikhail Miloradovich, a military hero who was greatly respected by ordinary soldiers, to pacify the rebels. While delivering a speech, Miloradovich was shot dead by the officer Peter Kakhovsky.

While the Northern Society scrambled in the days leading up to December 14, the Southern Society took a serious blow. On December 13, acting on reports of treason, the police arrested Pestel. It took two weeks for the Southern Society to learn of the events in the capital. Meanwhile, other members of the leadership were arrested. The Southern Society, and a nationalistic group called the United Slavs discussed revolt. When learning of the location of some of the arrested men, the United Slavs freed them by force. One of the freed men, Muraviev-Apostol, assumed leadership of the revolt. After converting the soldiers of Vasilkov to the cause, Muraviev-Apostol easily captured the city. The rebelling army was soon confronted by superior forces armed with artillery loaded with grapeshot, and with orders to destroy the rebels.

On January 3, the rebels met defeat and the surviving leaders were sent to St. Petersburg to stand trial with the northern leaders. The Decembrists were interrogated, tried, and convicted. Kakhovsky was executed by hanging together with four other leading Decembrists: Pavel Pestel; the poet Kondraty Ryleyev; Sergey Muravyov-Apostol; and Mikhail Bestuzhev-Ryumin. Other Decembrists were exiled to Siberia, Kazakhstan, and the Far East.

When the five Decembrists were hanged something unusual happened. The ropes that were being used to hang them split before any of them actually died. This caused a sigh of relief in the crowd because, according to a centuries-old tradition, any condemned prisoner who survived a botched execution would be set free. Rather than free these prisoners, Nicholas ordered new ropes and the prisoners were hanged again. This was the last public execution in Russian imperial history.

Suspicion also fell on several eminent persons who were on friendly terms with the Decembrist leaders and could have been aware of their clandestine organizations, notably Aleksandr Pushkin, Alexander Griboedov, and Aleksey Ermolov. Wives of many Decembrists followed their husbands into exile. The expression Decembrist wife is a Russian symbol of the devotion of a wife to her husband.

§Scandinavia

§Denmark

February 3 – Vendsyssel-Thy, once part of the Jutland peninsula that formed westernmost Denmark, becomes an island after a flood drowns its 1 km wide isthmus.

§South America

§Bolivia

August 6 – Bolivia gains its independence from Spain as a republic with the instigation of Simón Bolívar.

§Brazil

Seeing a chance to break the rule of a foreign nation over their country, some Uruguayans raised the flag of rebellion against the Brazilian government in 1825.

§Peru

February 10 – Simón Bolívar gives up his title of dictator of Peru and takes the alternative title of Liberator.

§Uruguay

August 25 – Uruguay declares independence from Brazil. In response to the annexation, the Thirty-Three Orientals led by Juan Antonio Lavalleja declared independence with their efforts supported by the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata (present-day Argentina).

December 10 - An armed conflict started over an area known as Banda Oriental or "Eastern Shore" (roughly present-day Uruguay) in the 1820s between the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata and the Empire of Brazil in the aftermath of the United Provinces' emancipation from Spain. It lasted 500 days until August 27, 1828 CE.

§South Pacific

§Hawaii

The first sugar cane grown for the purpose of extracting sugar was planted on the island of Oahu in Manoa Valley.

§Java

September 25 – General Hendrik Merkus de Kock lifts the siege of Jogjakarta, the first major action of the Java War.

§Malden Island

July 30 – Malden Island (an uninhabited island in the central Pacific Ocean) is discovered.

§Ongoing

  • Java War
  • Cisplatine War

§Sources

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