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§Of World Interest

March 25 - The Great Comet of 1811 is discovered by Honoré Flaugergues.

July 11 - Italian scientist Amedeo Avogadro publishes his memoire about the molecular content of gases.



March 1 - Citadel Massacre: Egyptian ruler Mohammed Ali kills the last Mamluk leaders.

The process of Muhammad Ali's seizure of power in Egypt was a long three way civil war between the Ottoman Turks, Egyptian Mamluks, and Albanian mercenaries. It ended in victory for the Albanians led by Muhammad Ali of Egypt.

The war was a result of the French invasion of Egypt by Napoleon. After the French defeat by the British a power vacuum was created in Egypt. The Mamelukes had governed Egypt before the French invasion and still had much power in the area. Egypt was officially a part of the Ottoman Empire and Egypt still had many Turkish troops that were sent to evict the French. Many of the best troops were from Albania, then a province of the Ottoman Empire.



There were more than two million Chinese immigrants on Taiwan

§Central America

§El Salvador

The first "shout of independence" in El Salvador came in 1811, at the hands of Criollo elite. Many intellectuals and merchants had grown tired of the overpowering control that Spain still had in the American colonies, and were interested in expanding their export markets to Britain and the United States. Indigenous uprisings aimed at Spanish subjugation plagued the territory at this time, and they were re-interpreted by the Republicans to serve their purpose and show popular support for independence. Thus a movement grew amongst the middle class Criollo and Mestizo classes. Ultimately, the 1811 declaration of independence failed when the governor-general of Guatemala sent troops to San Salvador in order to crush the movement.


§Great Britain

Great Britain is in the midst of the industrial revolution.

February 5 - British Regency: George, Prince of Wales becomes Prince Regent because of the perceived insanity of his father, King George III of the United Kingdom.

A group known as the Luddites formed in Nottingham. This was a group of skilled textile workers who felt threatened by the introduction of automated looms that could be operated by low-paid workers. They got their name from Ned Lud, who apparently destroyed one of these looms.

November - Luddite uprisings begin in northern England and the Midlands. The British government responded with harsh measures.

§Italy Adriatic Sea

March 13 - Battle of Lissa (1811): The British fleet defeats the French.

The Battle of Lissa was a naval action fought between a British frigate squadron and a substantially larger squadron of French and Venetian frigates and smaller ships on 13 March 1811 during the Adriatic campaign of the Napoleonic Wars. The engagement was fought in the Adriatic Sea for possession of the strategically important island of Lissa, from which the British squadron had been disrupting French shipping in the Adriatic. The French needed to control the Adriatic to supply a growing army in the Illyrian Provinces, and consequently despatched an invasion force in March 1811 consisting of six frigates, numerous smaller craft and a battalion of Italian soldiers.

The French invasion force under Bernard Dubourdieu was met by Captain William Hoste and his four ships based on the island. In the subsequent battle Hoste sank the French flagship, captured two others and scattered the remainder of the Franco-Venetian squadron. The battle has been hailed as an important British victory, due to both the disparity between the forces and the signal raised by Hoste, a former subordinate of Horatio Nelson. Hoste had raised the message "Remember Nelson" as the French bore down and had then manoeuvred to drive Dubourdieu's flagship ashore and scatter his squadron in what has been described as "one of the most brilliant naval achievements of the war".


Famine devastated Madrid: The Portuguese army exhausted the bread supplies in the Talavera and Toledo provinces also guerrillas stopped food supplies from entering Madrid causing high bread prices early in the year. By the end of the year this led to famine in Madrid.

The Battle of Albuera (16 May 1811) was an indecisive battle during the Peninsular War. A mixed British, Spanish, and Portuguese corps engaged elements of the French Armée du Midi (Army of the South) at the small Spanish village of Albuera, about 20 kilometres (12 mi) south of the frontier fortress-town of Badajoz, Spain.

From October 1810 Marshal Masséna's Army of Portugal had been tied down in an increasingly hopeless stand-off against Wellington's Allied forces, safely entrenched in and behind the Lines of Torres Vedras. Acting on Napoleon's orders, in early 1811 Marshal Soult led a French expedition from Andalusia into Extremadura in a bid to draw Allied forces away from the Lines and ease Masséna's plight. Napoleon's information was outdated and Soult's intervention came too late; starving and understrength, Masséna's army was already withdrawing to Spain. Soult was able to capture the fortress at Badajoz from the Spanish, but was forced to return to Andalusia following Marshal Victor's defeat in March at the Battle of Barrosa. However, Soult left Badajoz strongly garrisoned. In April, following news of Masséna's complete withdrawal from Portugal, Wellington sent a powerful Anglo-Portuguese corps commanded by Sir William Beresford to retake the border town. The Allies drove most of the French from the surrounding area, and laid siege to the remainder in Badajoz.

Soult rapidly gathered a new army from the French forces in Andalusia and, joining with the troops retreating before Beresford, he marched to relieve the siege. With intelligence of another approaching force—a Spanish army under General Joaquín Blake—he planned to turn Beresford's flank and interpose his army between the two. However, Soult was again acting on outdated information; unknown to the Marshal, the Spaniards had already linked up with the Anglo-Portuguese corps, and his 24,000 troops now faced a combined Allied army 35,000 strong.

The opposing armies met at the village of Albuera. Both sides suffered heavily in the ensuing struggle, but the French were eventually forced to retreat. Beresford's army was too battered and exhausted to pursue, but was able to resume the investment of Badajoz. Despite Soult's failure to relieve the town, the battle had little strategic effect on the on-going war—just one month later, in June 1811, the Allies were forced to abandon their siege by the approach of the reconstituted French Armies of Portugal and Andalusia.

§Middle East


Muhammed Ali knew that eventually he would have to deal with the Mamluks if he ever wanted to control Egypt. They were still the feudal owners of Egypt and their land was still the source of wealth and power. The constant strain on sustaining the military manpower necessary to defend the Mamluks's system from the Europeans and the Mongols would eventually weaken them to the point of collapse.

On March 1, 1811, Muhammad Ali invited all of the leading Mamluks to his palace to celebrate the declaration of war against the Wahhabis in Arabia. Between 600 and 700 Mamluks paraded in Cairo. Near the Al-Azab gates, in a narrow road down from Mukatam Hill, Muhammad Ali's forces ambushed and killed almost all in what came to be known as the Massacre of the Citadel. According to period reports, only one Mamluk, whose name is given variously as Amim (also Amyn), or Heshjukur (a Besleney), survived when he forced his horse to leap from the walls of the citadel, killing it in the fall.

During the following week, hundreds of Mamluks were killed throughout Egypt; in the citadel of Cairo alone more than 1,000 were killed. Throughout Egypt an estimated 3,000 Mamluks and their relatives were killed.

Despite these attempts by Muhammad Ali to defeat the Mamluks in Egypt, a party of them escaped and fled south into what is now Sudan. In 1811, these Mamluks established a state at Dunqulah in the Sennar as a base for their slave trading.

§North America


On July 30, 1811, Reverend Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla was executed by firing squad. His body was mutilated, and his head was displayed in Guanajuato as a warning to other would-be insurgents.

§United States

January 3 - An unsuccessful slave revolt is led by Charles Deslandes in St. Charles and St. James, Louisiana.

January 21 - Las Casas, a retired militia captain from Nuevo Santander led a group of army sergeants to stage a coup in San Antonio. The following morning they arrested the governor of Spanish Texas, Manuel María de Salcedo, and his entire military staff. Even as Salcedo was led to detention however, the rebellious soldiers instinctively saluted him. Las Casas chained Salcedo, Simon Herrerra, the governor of Nuevo Santander who was living in San Antonio, and twelve other Hispanis officers and humiliated them in front of the town. The prisoners were then transferred to Monclova in Coahuila.

The rest of Texas was quickly revolutionized. There was little resistance in Nacogdoches, where the presidio commander was arrested, or in La Bahia. Las Casas promptly confiscated property belonging to Hispanic residents, proclaimed himself the head of a provisional government, released political prisoners and jailed royalists. His arbitrary rule disenchanted much of the army, and Juan Manuel Zambrano, the subdeacon of San Antonio, soon led a counter-insurgency against him. On March 2, Zambrano and his royalists marched on the government house. Las Casas surrendered without a fight, just 39 days after taking over. Zambrano reestablished royalist control of the province and sent a messenger to inform those holding Salcedo.

During his captivity, Salcedo had been slowly enticing his captor with promises of a promotion and other rewards if he would renounce his revolutionary tendencies. After receiving Zambrano's message, Salcedo's captor changed sides again. With his help, on March 13, Salcedo and his military officers were able to capture Pedro de Aranda, who held documents detailing the movements of the revolutionary army. One week later, Salcedo led a group which captured much of Hidalgo's army, as well as 27 rebel leaders. Salcedo accompanied the captured leaders from Monclova to Chihuahua, the headquarters of the Commandant General. On April 26, 1811, the Commandant General appointed Salcedo to be president of a seven-member tribunal to try the revolutionaries. The men were quickly sentenced to death by firing squad.

Loyalists in Coahuila quickly judged, convicted, and executed the prisoners captured in San Antonio. Las Casas was shot in the back and beheaded on August 3, 1811. The body was buried at Monclova, Las but his head was shipped to San Antonio and displayed on a pole in the military plaza. With Salcedo still in Chihuahua, Zambrano administered the province. Among his accomplishments during this time was to inaugurate the first primary school in San Antonio.

November 6 - Battle of Tippecanoe: American troops led by William Henry Harrison defeat the Native American chief Tecumseh. Today, Prophet's Rock marks the spot, overlooking Burnett's Creek, where Tecumseh's brother, Lowawluwaysica, The Prophet, sang to encourage his warriors during the fight against William Henry Harrison's soldiers at the Battle of Tippecanoe.

October 11 – Inventor John Stevens' boat, the Juliana, begins operation as the first steam-powered ferry (service between New York, New York, and Hoboken, New Jersey).

December 16 - The New Madrid earthquake in Mississippi Valley near New Madrid reverses the course of the river for a while. Part of an eyewitness account:

On the 16th of December, 1811, about two o'clock, A.M., we were visited by a violent shock of an earthquake, accompanied by a very awful noise resembling loud but distant thunder, but more hoarse and vibrating, which was followed in a few minutes by the complete saturation of the atmosphere, with sulphurious vapor, causing total darkness. The screams of the affrighted inhabitants running to and fro, not knowing where to go, or what to do - the cries of the fowls and beasts of every species - the cracking of trees falling, and the roaring of the Mississippi - the current of which was retrogade for a few minutes, owing as is supposed, to an irruption in its bed -- formed a scene truly horrible.

The 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes were an intense intraplate earthquake series beginning with an initial earthquake of moment magnitude 7.5‑7.9 on December 16, 1811 followed by a moment magnitude 7.4 aftershock on the same day. They remain the most powerful earthquakes to hit the contiguous United States east of the Rocky Mountains in recorded history. They, as well as the seismic zone of their occurrence, were named for the Mississippi River town of New Madrid, then part of the Louisiana Territory, now within Missouri.

§U.S. Religion

Solomon Mack, grandfather of Joseph Smith, Jr. (Mormon founder) claimed a religious conversion from his Universalist beliefs to a more orthodox belief. He published a book about this conversion. Arguments about the Universalist belief which maintained that God would save all of mankind were found later in the Book of Mormon.

Joseph Smith, Sr. (father of Joseph Smith) claims to have had a vision this year where he described seeing both a broad and narrow path. Upon entering the narrow path he came to a stream of water, then a tree bearing a white fruit. After tasting the fruit he tried to persuade his family to partake as well. He then saw a great building filled with finely dressed people, mocking those who partook of the fruit. This compares closely with 1 Nephi 8:8-11:36 of the Book of Mormon published 19 years later.


In 1811 St. Petersburg was the largest city in Russia with a population of 335,600. Moscow was the second largest city with 270,200. Most of the other cities were considerably smaller with populations generally at or under 50,000 people.

Russian Staff developed a plan of offensive war, assuming a Russian assault on Warsaw and Gdańsk.

In an attempt to gain increased support from Polish nationalists and patriots, Napoleon in his own words termed this war the Second Polish War: "Soldiers, the second war of Poland is started; the first finished in Tilsit. In Tilsit, Russia swore eternal alliance in France and war in England. It violates its oaths today. Russia is pulled by its fate; its destinies must be achieved! Does it thus believe us degenerated? Thus let us go ahead; let us pass Neman River, carry the war on its territory.


June 9 - The Great fire of the Podil breaks out in Kiev, Ukraine.



The Battle of Anholt (March 27, 1811) proved a decisive British victory and led to many Danish casualties. A monument for the battle is located in Anholt village.

From 1808 to 1814, Anholt, a small Danish island off the coast of Jutland, was occupied by the British who sought to restore the function of the lighthouse to aid their navigation. During the Gunboat War, Denmark attempted to retake the island by force.

§South America


April 5- April 6 - Revolutionary riots occur in Buenos Aires.


The Bolivian war for independence continued.


November 24, 1811, Swedish-American Mathew Hoevel (Spanish: Mateo Arnaldo Hoevel), an idealist for free government, landed the Galloway in the port of Valparaiso with a printing press, American printers, and arms and munitions to supply the troops of the independence movement. These printers, who included Samuel Burr Johnston, soon set to work publishing the Aurora de Chile, Chile's first local publication launched in 1812.

November 17 - José Miguel Carrera, Chilean founding father, is sworn in as President of the executive Junta of the government of Chile.


May 14 - Paraguay declares independence from Spain.


Led by José Gervasio Artigas, the region then known as the Eastern Bank, in the River Plate basin, revolted against Spanish rule in 1811.


July 5 - Venezuela declares its independence from Spain.

§Ongoing events

  • Argentine War of Independence (1810-1818)
  • Black War (1804-1835)
  • Bolivian Independence War (1809-1824)
  • Gunboat War (1807-1814)
  • Mtetwa Empire Expansion
  • Napoleonic Wars (1799-1815) - Peninsular War
  • Russo-Persian War (1804-1813)
  • Russo-Turkish War, 1806-1812


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