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1780CE

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§Africa

§Algieria

New arrivals destined for the slave auctions of Algiers, Tunis and Tripoli numbered on average about 5,000 a year during the boom years of the trade. Modern historians estimate that in all, between 1530 and 1780, at least a million European captives were enslaved on the Barbary coast.

§Atlantic Ocean

"Sharks began to follow slave ships when they reached the Guinea coast [of western Africa]. ... What attracted the sharks (as well as other fish) was the human waste, offal, and rubbish that was continually thrown overboard. Like a 'greedy robber,' the shark 'attends the ship, in expectation of what may drop overboard. A man, who unfortunately falls into the sea at such time, is sure to perish, without mercy.'

"If the shark was the dread of sailors, it was the outright terror of the enslaved. No effort was made to protect or bury the bodies of African captives who died on the slave ships. ... Slaving captains consciously used sharks to create terror throughout the voyage. They counted on sharks to prevent the desertion of their seamen and the escape of their slaves during the long stays on the coast of Africa required to gather a human 'cargo.' ... So well known was the conscious use of terror by the slave captain to create social discipline that when Oliver Goldsmith came to write the natural history of sharks in 1774, he drew heavily on the lore of the slave trade. ... Goldsmith recounted two instances:

" 'The Master of the Guinea-ship, finding a rage for suicide among his slaves, from a notion the unhappy creatures had that after death they should be restored again to their families, friends, and country; to convince them at least that some disgrace should attend them here, he immediately ordered one of their dead bodies to be tied by the heels to a rope, and so let down into the sea; and, though it was drawn up again with great swiftness, yet in that short space, the sharks had bit off all but the feet.'

"A second case was even more gruesome. Another captain facing a 'rage for suicide' seized upon a woman 'as a proper example to the rest.' He ordered the woman tied with a rope under her armpits and lowered into the water: 'When the poor creature was thus plunged in, and about halfway down, she was heard to give a terrible shriek, which at first was ascribed to her fears of drowning; but soon after, the water appeared red all around her, she was drawn up, and it was found that a shark, which had followed the ship, had bit her off from the middle.' Other slave-ship captains practiced a kind of sporting terror, using human remains to troll for sharks: 'Our way to entice them was by Towing overboard a dead Negro, which they would follow till they had eaten him up.' "

§Europe

§England

June 2 - Gordon Riots in London, Great Britain.

First Epsom Derby horse race run at Epsom Downs, Surrey, England.

The original Craven Cottage was built in 1780, by William Craven, the sixth Baron Craven and was located on the centre circle of the pitch.

§France

Good grain and wine harvest in France.

In March 1780, Lafayette left his wife, Adrienne, and his newborn son, and France, departing for the Americas aboard the Hermione.

§Germany

April 16 - The University of Münster in Münster, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany is founded.

Illuminati founder, Spartacus-Weishaupt got his own sister-in-law pregnant and had to eradicate this embarrassment. He planned to procure an abortion, and, of course, admitted all this to a few other Illuminati who understood that the woman's life was quite expendable in order to protect the Conspiracy.

§Great Britain

March 26 - The British Gazette and Sunday Monitor, the first Sunday newspaper in Britain.

Sir Gilbert Blane, Scottish physician, published a pamphlet for the benefit of ships' surgeons in 1780 entitled On the most effective means for preserving the health of seamen, particularly in the Royal Navy. He advocated the use of citrus juice as a preventative and cure for scurvy.

§Ireland

In Ireland, Lady Berry, who is sentenced to death for the murder of her son, is released when she agrees to become an executioner (retires 1810).

§Netherlands

Britain attacks the United Provinces before it can join the League of Armed Neutrality, because of its support for the American uprising.

§Portugal

January 16 - American Revolutionary War: Battle of Cape St. Vincent.

§North America

§Caribbean

October 10-16 – Great hurricane flattens the islands of Barbados, Martinique and St. Eustatius.

Great Hurricane of 1780--This storm was one of several that year, which was one of the worst hurricane seasons in the era prior to record taking. Winds were estimated to be Category Four strength at 135 mph. This storm, which affected the Southern Windward Islands including Barbados, St. Vincent, Grenada, Martinique, St. Eustatius, and near Puerto Rico and Grand Turk Island, is believed to have killed approximately 22,000 people. Of that total, between 4,000 and 5,000 people were killed on St. Eustatius. Martinique had an estimated 9,000 people killed including 1,000 in St. Pierre, which had all of its homes destroyed.

October 3-4 - In Jamaica, 1115 were lost. A hurricane and earthquake destroy Savannah-la-mar, Westmoreland, Hanover; a great portion of Cornwall, St. James, St. Elizabeth

October 10-11 - In Barbados; St. Lucia; St.Vincent; Grenada; St. Christopher; Martinique, the total loss to all islands 22000. (alternatively 23,200 lives were lost) With earthquake in Martinique, 9000 lives lost, damage 700,000 Louis-d’or

§United States

Smallpox swept through the Pueblos of New Mexico.

British forces departed Prarie du Chien on May 2 to St. Louis, commanded by British officer, Emanuel Hesse. There was a small contingent of British (Canadians), 200 Santee Sioux, Commanded by Chief Wabasha, a "Party of Chippewas", Commanded by Chief Matchekewis, "Large contingent of Winnebagoes and Menominees", 250 Sauk and Fox warriors, and other warriors from a "half dozen other tribes." The total numbered anywhere from 900 to 1200 men, depending on sources.

May 12 - Charleston, South Carolina is taken by British forces.

May 26 - St. Louis was under the leadership of a particularly inept governor in 1780 when a British-Indian expedition attacked the city. Governor De Leyba had done nothing to protect the village. Residents, at their own expense, had built a palisade on the western side of the town. Some men had gone off to join the Americans under George Rogers Clark to attack Vincennes in Indiana.

Suddenly, the day after the feast of Corpus Christi, Indians poured into the wheat fields of what is now Fairgrounds Park. One settler, Jean Marie Cardinal, was slain, leaving his Pawnee wife a widow to raise their eight children. Others were struck down. In the struggle Julian Roy managed to fire his pistol, shooting a pursuing Indian in the jaw. Filled with remorse, the settler turned and ran to the Indian helping to heal the wound. In return the Indian helped Roy across the battlefield and to the safety of the city wall.

May 29 - Loyalist forces under Col. Banastre Tarleton kill surrendering American soldiers in the Waxhaw Massacre.

August 16 - Battle of Camden - The British defeat the Americans near Camden, South Carolina.

September 25 – Benedict Arnold flees to British-held New York.

October 2 - British spy John André is hanged by American forces in New York for assisting in the attempted surrender of West Point, New York.

October 7 - Patriots defeat Loyalists under British Major Patrick Ferguson at the Battle of Kings Mountain.

In the end, the attack failed. The British and Indians withdrew to their stronghold at Fort Michilimackinac in present-day Michigan. The British strategy to destroy French influence in the upper Mississippi came to nought.

§Sources

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