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1734CE

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§Europe

§England

January 8 - Premiere of George Frideric Handel's opera Ariodante at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden.

§Germany

June 17 - French troops take Philippsburg, but the Duke of Berwick is killed

§Italy

Young Giacomo Girolamo Casanova begins his amorous career. He is among the first to use condoms to prevent pregnancy. Said to prefer condoms made from lamb intestine -- still the preferred material for natural gut condoms -- he also used linen condoms tied off with a ribbon.

§Poland

June 30 - The War of the Polish Succession: Russian troops take Gdańsk (German: Danzig), which had been besieged since October 1733. Gdańsk is captured after the failure of a French expedition to relieve the city.

Late 1734 - The Confederation of Dzikow and under their commander, Adam Tarło, tried to fight the Russians and Saxons, but their efforts were ineffective.

§Rhineland

In the spring of 1734 French maneuvers successfully flanked the defensive line at Ettlingen, near Karlsruhe, and Prince Eugene of Savoy (who, despite being a Savoyard, fought on the Austrian side) was forced to withdraw these forces to the imperial encampment at Heilbronn. This cleared the way for the French army under the Duke of Berwick to besiege the imperial fort at Philippsburg, which fell after a siege of two months in July 1734. Eugene, who was accompanied by Crown Prince Frederick of Prussia, made some attempts to relieve the siege, but never made any decisive attacks against the besieging army owing to its size and relatively poor quality of the troops under his command. Berwick was killed by a shell at Philippsburg.

§Middle East

§Afghanistan

The last ruler of the Hotaki dynasty, Shah Husayn Khan, ruled the area of Afghanistan until 1738 when Nader's Afsharids and the Abdali Pashtuns under Ahmad Shah Durrani defeated him at Kandahar.

§North America

§Canada

June 21 - In Montreal in New France, a black slave known by the French name of Marie-Joseph Angélique, was tortured then hanged by the French authorities in a public ceremony that involved her disgrace and the amputation of a hand.

La Vérendrye was the first European to explore the Manitoba area during his quest for a route to the Western Sea.

§Sources

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