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1716CE

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§Eastern Asia

§China

Kangxi Dictionary is published this year. This dictionary lays the foundation of most references to Han characters studies nowadays.

§Japan

Six year old Ietsugu dies, thus ending the Hidetada and Iemitsu line of shōguns. Yoshimune, the Daimyō of Kii, becomes the eighth Shōgun.

Thinking that the samurai class had tilted too far towards learning and leisure, and away from the martial arts and discipline, he frequently issues edicts demanding frugality and self discipline. These are, in large part, ignored. Under Yoshimune's leadership, the legal and judicial system undergoes considerable expansion. Although the Tokugawa bureaucracy is staffed only by samurai, a non-militaristic and more rational approach is brought to conflict resolution. Yoshimune also reforms the currency and tries to revive the agricultural underpinnings of the country in order to take back some power form the now strong merchant class. However, the next two successors were incompetent and power eventually fell to dishonest and greedy counsellors.

§Europe

§France

May – John Law founds the Banque de France.

§Hapsburg Empire

August 5 – Battle of Petrovaradin: 83,300 Austrian troops of Prince Eugene of Savoy defeat 150,000 Ottoman Turks under Damad Ali Pasha.

§Great Britain

February - Faced with impending defeat, Lord Mar and the Pretender fled to France. After the rebellion was defeated, although there were some executions and forfeitures, King George acted to moderate the Government's response, showed leniency, and spent the income from the forfeited estates on schools for Scotland and paying off part of the national debt.

May 26 – Two regular companies of field artillery, each 100 men strong, are raised at Woolwich by Royal Warrant of King George I of Great Britain.

May 28 – John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, suffers a paralytic stroke.

July 5 – Prince Ernest Augustus is created Duke of York.

November 9 – Caroline of Ansbach, Princess of Wales, gives birth to a stillborn son.

December 12 – Charles Townshend, 2nd Viscount Townshend, is demoted from his office as Secretary of State for the Northern Department in the British government and replaced by James Stanhope, 1st Earl Stanhope.

§Holy Roman Empire

Elisabeth Christine gave birth to a baby boy in 1716. Unfortunately, he died soon after.

Charles waged a productive conflict against the Ottoman Empire from 1716 to 1718. Austria came out of it with sizeable gains in Serbia and Royal Hungary, extending its empire to the Danube.

§Italy

August 24 – Charles VII, Holy Roman Emperor, leaves Italy.

§Scotland

Crieff, Scotland is burned to the ground in revenge for the Jacobite defeat at the Battle of Sheriffmuir.

February 10 – James Edward Stuart flees from Scotland to France with a handful of supporters following failure of the Jacobite Rebellion.

February 24 – Execution of the Jacobite leaders James Radclyffe, 3rd Earl of Derwentwater and William Gordon, 6th Viscount of Kenmure

§Serbia

August 5 - In the Battle of Peterwardein 40.000 Austrian troops of Prince Eugene of Savoy defeat 150,000 Ottoman Turks under Darnad Ali Pasha

§Spain

January 16 – Application of Nueva Planta decrees to Catalonia, making it subject to the laws of the Crown of Castile, concluding the unification of Spain under Philip V

§North America

§United States

Natchez, one of the oldest towns on the Mississippi, is founded.

January 27 – The Tugaloo Massacre changes the course of the Yamasee War.

Yale is moved from it out-of-the-way location in Saybrook to New Haven.

§Scandinavia

§Sweden

July 8 – Battle of Dynekilen: The Swedish fleet is defeated by a Danish-Norwegian fleet.

§Ongoing

  • Pirate Blackbeard (Edward Teach) raids shipping in the Caribbean.

§Deaths

  • June 9 – Banda Bahadur, Sikh military commander (executed)
  • July 8 – Robert South, English churchman (b. 1634)
  • August 5 – Silahtar Ali Pasha, Ottoman (Turkish) grand vizier (b. 1667)
  • October 28 – Stephen Fox, English politician (b. 1627)
  • November 2 – Engelbert Kaempfer, German traveler and physician (b. 1651)
  • November 14 – Gottfried Leibniz, German philosopher, scientist, and mathematician (b. 1646)

§Sources

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