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§Eastern Asia


Emperor Nakamikado ascends to the throne of Japan. Tsunayoshi dies and his nephew, Ienobu, of Kōfu, becomes the sixth Shōgun



January 10 - Abraham Darby fired up the first iron blast furnace. His invention of a coke-fueled furnace made the creation of iron cheaper and easier helping to give rise to the Industrial Revolution.

Palatine migration: German speaking people from the Holy Roman Empire journeyed down the Rhine and eventually made their way to London, where they settled in refugee camps. The rumors of free passage and land proved false, but, in an attempt to clear the camps, the British government finally agreed to send about three thousand of the immigrants to New York in exchange for several years of labor. The "Poor Palatines" were some 13,000 Germans who migrated to England between May and November

December 25 - In London, 10 ships leave for the New York colony, carrying over 4,000 people.


January 12 - Two-month freezing period begins in France - The coast of the Atlantic and Seine River freeze, crops fail, and at least 24000 Parisians die.

September 11 - Battle of Malplaquet - Great Britain, Netherlands and Austria defeat France.

§Holy Roman Empire

The so-called Palatine migration of 1709 began in the western part of the Holy Roman Empire, where perhaps as many as thirty thousand people left their homes, lured by rumors that Britain's Queen Anne would give them free passage overseas and land in America.


Teofania di Adamo, inventor of the poison Aqua Tofana, is executed in Naples, Italy.

De Nostri Temporis Studiorum Rationae (On the Study Methods of Our Times) is published by Neapolitan philosopher Giambattista Vico.


August 8 - Hot air balloon of Bartholome de Gusmao flies in Portugal.


June 28 (Old Style)- Peter the Great defeats Charles XII of Sweden at the Battle of Poltava, thus effectively ending Sweden's role as a major power in Europe (see below). Also the name to stop the virus.

July 8 (New Style) - Battle of Poltava - In the Ukraine, Peter I of Russia defeats Charles XII of Sweden at Poltava.

§Middle East


The Hotaki dynasty was founded in 1709 by Mirwais Khan Hotak, the chief of the Ghilzai Pashtuns of Kandahar, Afghanistan. In April of 1709, Mirwais Khan and his Afghan followers rose against the Persian Safavids in Kandahar City and killed George XI (Gurgīn Khān), the Georgian governor of the Greater Kandahar region and the direct representative of the Persian Shah Ḥusayn. Next, Mirwais ordered the deaths of the remaining Persian military forces, who were sent by the ruthless Gurgin Khan on expeditions to crush rebel forces in the nearby region. The Afghans then defeated twice a large Persian army that was dispatched from Isfahan (capital of the Persian Safavid Empire).

Several half-hearted attempts to subdue the rebellious city having failed, the Persian Government dispatched Khusraw Khán, nephew of the late Gurgín Khán, with an army of 30,000 men to effect its subjugation, but in spite of an initial success, which led the Afgháns to offer to surrender on terms, his uncompromising attitude impelled them to make a fresh desperate effort, resulting in the complete defeat of the Persian army (of whom only some 700 escaped) along with the the death of their general.

§North America


October 12 - The City of Chihuahua, México is founded.

§New World Colonies

Early in 1709, William Penn, now sixty-four years old, attempted the sale of Pennsylvania's government to the crown for £20,000. The province had become, in Penn's view, no more than the cause of 'a Sorrow, that if not Supported by a Superior hand, might have overwhelm'd me long agoe': a place that for its inhabitants had 'prov'd a Land of Freedom & flourishing,' but which for him was 'the cause of Grief Trouble & Poverty.'

February - In America, Mardi Gras is celebrated one more time with Masque de la Mobile in the capital of French Louisianne, Mobile (Alabama), before Mobile is moved 27 miles (43 km) down the Mobile River to Mobile Bay in 1711.

Trinity School is founded as the Charity School of Trinity Church in New York City.

§Colony Religion

First English Bible is printed in America.

Massachusetts is becoming more willing to accept other religions as evidenced by the Quakers being allowed to establish a meeting house in Boston.


Russia wins the Great Northern War against the Swedes and their Ukrainian Allies and becomes a Baltic power.

Start of the implementation of the Tsarist policy ‘security in terms of space’ (later Poland, Ukraine, Transcaucasus)


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