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1677CE

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§Europe

§England

Sarah Churchill marries John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough.

Elias Ashmole gifts the collection that begins the Ashmolean Museum to Oxford University.

Second London Baptist Confession written, published in 1689.

Charles II of England makes Henry Purcell court musician.

November 4 - Dutch stadtholder, William III and a tearful Mary II were married in St. James's Palace by Bishop Henry Compton

Mid November - Mary accompanied her husband on a rough sea crossing back to the Netherlands later that month, after a delay of two weeks caused by bad weather.

§France

Battle of Cassel, Philippe I of Orléans defeats William of Orange.

Michel le Tellier becomes chancellor of France.

Jules Hardouin-Mansart begins la place Vendôme in Paris (completed in 1698).

Population of Paris first exceeds 500,000.

Ice cream becomes popular in Paris.

§Germany

May 31 - Danish ships clash with Swedish ships under Niels Juel between Fehmarn and Warnemünde - Danish defeat the Swedish and capture number of ships.

November 16 - French troops occupy Freiburg.

The Swedes defeat the Danes, at Rostock and at Landström.

§Netherlands

Forty-five year old, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek observes spermatozoa under the microscope. There is no historical record of where he obtained the specimen.

During the war with France, William tried to improve his position by marrying Mary Stuart, his first-cousin and daughter of James, Duke of York and eleven years his junior. Although he anticipated resistance to a Stuart match from the Amsterdam merchants who had disliked his mother (another Mary Stuart), William believed that marrying Mary would increase his chances of succeeding to Charles's kingdoms, and would draw England's monarch away from his pro-French policies. James was not inclined to consent, but Charles pressured his brother to go along. Charles wanted to use the possibility of marriage to gain leverage in negotiations relating to the war, but William insisted that the two issues be decided separately. Charles relented, and Bishop Henry Compton married the couple on 4 November 1677.

Mid-November- Rotterdam was inaccessible because of ice, and William and Mary were forced to land at the small village of Ter Heijde, and walk through the frosty countryside until met by coaches to take them to Huis Honselaarsdijk.

December 14 - William and Mary made a formal entry to The Hague in a grand procession.

Mary became pregnant soon after the marriage, but miscarried.

After his marriage in November 1677, William became a possible candidate for the English throne if his father-in-law (and uncle) James were excluded because of his Catholicism.

§Sweden

Battle of Landskrona.

§North America

§United States

May 29 - Treaty of Middle Plantation establishes peace between the Virginia colonists and the local Indians.

§Indonesia

§Java

Part of of Amangkurat I's foreign policy was strengthening the alliance with Sultanate of Cirebon. He did this by marrying his daughter to Panembahan Adiningkusuma, Sultan of Cirebon. However, he later suspected his son-in-law had grown closer to Mataram's rival, the Sultanate of Banten. In order to weaken Cirebon, in 1677 he summoned Panembahan Adiningkusuma and his family to Plered, where Amangkurat I ordered him to be executed. He was entombed in Girilaya hill near Yogyakarta, near the royal tomb of Mataram kings in Imogiri, and known as Panembahan Girilaya. He held Cirebon captive, and took Girilaya's heirs, Prince Mertawijaya and Prince Kertawijaya, his own grandsons, as hostages in his court.

By the mid-1670s dissatisfaction with the king was turning into open revolt, beginning from the recalcitrant Eastern Java and creeping inward. The crown prince (future Amangkurat II) felt that his life was not safe in the court after he took his father’s concubine with the help of his maternal grandfather, Pangeran Pekik of Surabaya, making Amangkurat I suspicious of a conspiracy among Surabayan factions to grab power in the capital by using Pekiks’ grandson’s powerful position as the crown prince. He conspired with Panembahan Rama from Kajoran, west of Magelang, who proposed a stratagem in which the crown prince financed Rama’s son-in-law, Trunajaya, to begin a rebellion in the East Java. Raden Trunajaya, a prince from Madura, lead a revolt fortified by itinerant fighters from faraway Makassar that captured the king's court at Mataram in mid-1677. The king escaped to the north coast with his eldest son, the future king, leaving his younger son Pangeran Puger in Mataram. Apparently more interested in profit and revenge than in running a struggling empire, the rebel Trunajaya looted the court and withdrew to his stronghold in Kediri, East Java, leaving Puger in control of a weak court. Seizing this opportunity, Puger assumed the throne in the ruins of Plered with the title Susuhunan ing Alaga.

Soon after this episode, Amangkurat I died and was succeeded by his eldest son as king in 1677.

§Sources

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Page last modified on September 04, 2016, at 03:26 PM