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Weary from the long struggle, Nzinga signed a peace treaty with Portugal. After the wars with Portugal ended, she attempted to rebuild her nation, which had been seriously damaged by years of conflict and over-farming. She was anxious that Njinga Mona's Imbangala not succeed her as ruler of the combined kingdom of Ndongo and Matamba, and inserted language in the treaty that bound Portugal to assist her family to retain power. Lacking a son to succeed her, she tried to vest power in the Ngola Kanini family and arranged for her sister to marry João Guterres Ngola Kanini and to succeed her. This marriage, however, was not allowed, as priests maintained that João had a wife in Ambaca. She returned to the Christian church to distance herself ideologically from the Imbangala, and took a Kongo priest Calisto Zelotes dos Reis Magros as her personal confessor. She permitted Capuchin missionaries, first Antonio da Gaeta and the Giovanni Antonio Cavazzi da Montecuccolo to preach to her people. Both wrote lengthy accounts of her life, kingdom, and strong will.



January - The Meireki no Taika (great fire) in Edo, Japan destroys most of the city and damages Edo castle, killing an estimated 100,000 people.


March 23 - France and England form an alliance against Spain; England receives Dunkirk.


January 8 - Miles Sindercombe, would-be-assassin of Oliver Cromwell, and his group are captured in London.

February 4 - Oliver Cromwell grants residency to Luis Caravajal.

March 31 - The English Humble Petition and Advice offers Lord Protector Cromwell the crown.

April 3 - English Lord Protector Cromwell refuses the crown, preferring the title "Lord Protector".

July 13 - Oliver Cromwell constrains English army leader John Lambert.


June 8 - The Parliament of England passes the Act of Settlement for the Assuring, Confirming and Settling of lands and estates in Ireland, confirming legal arrangements made under the Act for the Settlement of Ireland 1652.

October 3 - French troops occupy Mardyke.

November 17 - Henry Cromwell, son of Oliver Cromwell, appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland.

Town of Skibbereen chartered.


October 1 - Treaty of Raalte: Willem II is no longer viceroy of Overijssel.


September 19 - Brandenburg and Poland sign the Treaty of Wehlau.

November 6 - Brandenburg and Poland sign the Unity of Bromberg.

§Spain (Canary Islands)

April 20 - Admiral Robert Blake destroys a Spanish silver fleet under heavy fire at Santa Cruz de Tenerife.


Shah Jahan, ruler of the Mughal Empire in the Indian subcontinent, fell ill and was widely reported to have died. With this news, the struggle for succession began. Aurangzeb's eldest brother, Dara Shikoh, was regarded as heir apparent, but the succession proved far from certain. When Shah Jahan supposedly died, his second son, Shah Shuja declared himself emperor in Bengal. Imperial armies sent by Dara and Shah Jahan soon restrained this effort, and Shuja retreated.

§North America


August 20 - The ship Les Armes d'Amsterdam arrives at Quebec, New France. Among the passengers is Michel Mathieu Brunet dit Lestang (1638-1708), colonist, explorer and co-discoverer of what is today Green Bay, Wisconsin.


February - Admiral Robert Blake defeats the Spanish West Indian Fleet in a battle over the seizure of Jamaica.

§United States

April 20 - The Jews of New Amsterdam (later New York City) are granted freedom of religion as full citizens

June 1 - The first Quaker settlers arrive in New Amsterdam (later New York).

August - In New Amsterdam, 11 Quakers arrive and are allowed to practice their religion.

September 24 - The first autopsy and coroner's jury verdict is recorded in the colony of Maryland.

December 27 - The Flushing Remonstrance is signed in New Amsterdam at the site of the future Flushing Town Hall (built 1862) in New York.

Flushing, now in Queens, New York, was then part of the Dutch colony of New Netherland. Stuyvesant had formally banned the practice of all religions outside of the Dutch Reformed Church, the established church of the Netherlands, in the colony. In 1656 William Wickenden, a Baptist minister from Rhode Island was arrested by Dutch colonial authorities, jailed, fined, and exiled for baptizing Christians in Flushing. Many other similar incidents took place prior to the Remonstrance

The Flushing Remonstrace was signed on December 27, 1657 by a group of English citizens who were affronted by persecution of Quakers and the religious policies of Stuyvesant.

Four who signed were arrested by order of Stuyvesant. Two immediately recanted, but the writer of the remonstrance, Edward Hart, and sheriff of Flushing Tobias Feake remained firm in their convictions. Both men were remanded to prison where they survived in isolation on rations of bread and water for over a month. After friends and family petitioned Stuyvesant on behalf of the elderly Hart, the clerk was released on penalty of banishment. Feake held out for a few more weeks, but eventually recanted and was pardoned after being fined and banned from holding public office. The town government of Flushing was removed and Dutch replacements were appointed by Stuyvesant.

The Flushing Remonstrace is considered a precursor to the United States Constitution's provision on freedom of religion in the Bill of Rights.

§South Pacific


Sultan Saiffudin of Tidore accepted a treaty with the VOC which included the eradication of unauthorized spice production in return for payments from the Company.


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