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§South Africa

April 6 – Dutch sailor Jan van Riebeeck establishes a resupply camp for the Dutch East India Company at the Cape of Good Hope, and founds Cape Town.


Aurangzeb was appointed governor of Multan alongside Osman Junaid and Sindh and began a protracted military struggle against the Safavid army in an effort to capture the city of Kandahar. He failed, and fell again into his father's disfavor.

In 1652, Aurangzeb was re-appointed governor of the Deccan. But both man and place had changed. The Deccan produced poor tax revenue for the Mughals. In his previous term, Aurangzeb ignored the problem, allowing state-sanctioned corruption and extortion to grow. This time Aurangzeb set about reforming the system, but his efforts often placed additional burdens on the locals and were poorly received.

It was during this second governorship that Aurangzeb first recounts destroying a Hindu temple. In addition, Aurangzeb's officers began treating non-Muslims harshly, and he defended these practices in letters to Shah Jahan's court. The practices would become themes in Aurangzeb's rule as emperor.



Menasseh Ben Israel published Hope of Israel. This Jewish rabbi was a firm believer that the remnants of the ten tribes of Israel had been discovered in the Americas.

May 29 – First Anglo-Dutch War: The opening battle is fought off Dover, between Lt.-Admiral Maarten Harpertszoon Tromp's 42 Dutch ships and 21 English ships divided into 2 squadrons, one commanded by Robert Blake and the other by Nehemiah Bourne.

August 26 – First Anglo-Dutch War – Battle of Plymouth: A fleet from the Commonwealth of England attacks an outward-bound convoy of the United Provinces, escorted by 23 men-of-war and 6 fire ships commanded by Vice-Commodore Michiel de Ruyter.

October 8 – First Anglo-Dutch War – Battle of the Kentish Knock: The battle is fought near the shoal called the Kentish Knock in the North Sea, about 30 km from the mouth of the River Thames.


Famine in the East of France


Famine throughout much of Ireland during the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland.

May 12 - Siege of Galway: Thomas Preston, the military governor of Galway, surrenders the city to English Parliamentarians commanded by Charles Coote. Galway is the last city held by Irish Catholic forces.

May - The largest Irish guerrilla forces under John Fitzpatrick (in Leinster), Edmund O'Dwyer (in Munster) and Edmund Daly (in Connacht) surrender, under terms signed at Kilkenny, allowing Irish troops to go abroad to serve in foreign armies not at war with the Commonwealth of England.

August 12 - The Parliament of England passes the Act for the Settlement of Ireland. Gerard Boate's Natural History of Ireland is published posthumously in London.


January 8 – Michiel de Ruyter marries the widow Anna van Gelder and plans retirement, but months later becomes a vice-commodore in the First Anglo-Dutch War.


The Great Plague of Seville (1647–1652) was a massive outbreak of disease in Spain that killed up to a quarter of Seville's population. This was the last year of this epidemic.

§North America

§New World (United States)

May 18 – Rhode Island passes the first law in North America making slavery illegal.

§South Pacific


January - The Dutchman, de Vlaming called in the favor of King Syah, who two years prior had come to him for help after a palace coup. de Vlaming helped him regain the throne. de Vlaming now took Syah to Batavia where he signed an agreement that dealt with what he considered the over-production of cloves. The Dutch wanted to curtail production to drive up prices. After displacing the Portuguese and Spanish, the Dutch introduced a policy known as extirpatie: extirpation.

All clove trees not controlled by the VOC were uprooted and burned. Anyone caught growing, stealing or possessing clove plants without authorization faced the death penalty.

On the Banda Islands, to the south - the world's only source of nutmeg - the Dutch used Japanese mercenaries to slaughter almost the entire male population.


  • February 7 – Gregorio Allegri, Italian composer (b. 1582)
  • June 21 – Inigo Jones, English architect (b. 1573)
  • July 30 – Charles Amédée de Savoie, 6th Duc de Nemours, French soldier (b. 1624)
  • August 22 – Jacob De la Gardie, Swedish soldier and statesman (b. 1583)
  • August 23 – John Byron, 1st Baron Byron, English royalist politician (b. 1600)
  • October 8 – John Greaves, English mathematician and antiquarian (b. 1602)
  • October 20 – Antonio Coello, Spanish writer (b. 1611)
  • November 4 – Jean-Charles de la Faille, Belgian mathematician (b. 1597)
  • December 11 – Denis Petau, French theologian and historian (b. 1583)
  • November 21 – Jan Brożek, Polish mathematician, physician, and astronomer (b. 1585)
  • December 23 – John Cotton, founder of Boston, Massachusetts (b. 1585)


  • Fronde civil war in France (1648–1653)
  • Khmelnytsky Uprising in Ukraine (1648–1654)


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Page last modified on June 28, 2017, at 11:21 PM