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§Of World Interest

The World population is estimated between 470 and 545 million people. This was also a year of climatic minimum in what has been termed as the "little ice age." The next minima occurred in 1770 CE.


Death by tuberculosis was considered inevitable, being the principal cause of death in 1650.


May 1 - Treaty of Breda signed between Charles II and the Scottish Covenanters

June 23 - Charles II signs the Solemn League and Covenant

August 23 – Colonel George Monck forms Monck's Regiment of Foot, forerunner of the Coldstream Guards.

September 2 - On 2 September 1650, David Leslie brought his army down from Doon Hill and approached the town, hoping to secure the road south over the Spott Burn in preparation for an attack on Cromwell's encampment. Witnessing Leslie's men wedge themselves between the deep ditch of the Spott Burn, and the slopes of the Lammermuirs behind them, Cromwell quickly realised that here was an opportunity for him to turn the tables on the Scots. He knew that an attack on the Scottish right flank would leave the left flank unengaged and that a successful push against the right would roll back the latter. On observing the Scots manouevring into their new positions, he is said to have exclaimed, "The Lord hath delivered them into our hands!"

The Major-General [Lambert] and myself coming to the Earl of Roxburgh's House [Brocksmouth House], and observing this posture, I told him I thought it did give us an opportunity and advantage to attempt upon the Enemy. To which he immediately replied, That he had thought to have said the same thing to me. So that it pleased the Lord to set this apprehension upon both of our hearts, at the same instant. We called for Colonel Monk, and showed him the thing: and coming to our quarters at night, and demonstrating our apprehensions to some of the Colonels, they also cheerfully concurred.
— Cromwell

September 3 – Battle of Dunbar (3rd English Civil War. Oliver Cromwell defeated a Scottish, French and Albanian army commanded by David Leslie which was loyal to King Charles II, who had been proclaimed King of Scots and crowned at Scone. In 2016 1,700 skeletons, found underground at the southern tip of Durham University's Palace Green Library, were likely Scottish soldiers who had been taken prisoner after the Battle of Dunbar in 1650. Many of the prisoners likely died from hunger or disease, and were thrown into mass graves to be forgotten. The ages of the men ranged between 13 and 25 years old.

September 29 – Henry Robinson opens his Office of Addresses and Encounters (the first historically documented dating service) in Threadneedle Street, London.

December 1 - Battle of Hieton, Scotland (skirmish)

December 25 – Thomas Cooper, former Usher of Gresham's School, England, is hanged as a Royalist rebel.

The original Glastonbury Thorn itself was cut down and burned as a relic of superstition by Cromwellian troops (or 'Roundheads' by another source) during the English Civil War.

England outlawed trading with the Dutch.


Famine in the east of France


March 27 - Confederate Ireland's besieged capital Kilkenny is surrendered to Cromwell.

April 27 - Cromwellian conquest of Ireland: Oliver Cromwell joins the Siege of Clonmel in person.

May 1 - Charles II repudiates his alliance with Irish Catholics in favour of one with Scottish Covenanters in the Treaty of Breda. Most English Royalists in Ireland surrender to the Parliamentarians after this point.

May 10 - Battle of Macroom: Irish force defeated by English Parliamentarians.

May 17 - Siege of Clonmel: Cromwell's troops storm the walls, taking up to 2,500 casualties. Although they are unable to take the town by force, the garrison, without supplies, slips away under cover of darkness.

May 26 - Cromwell leaves Ireland from Youghal and passes his command to Henry Ireton.

June 19 - Battle of Tecroghan: an Irish force successfully relieves the siege of Tecroghan Castle in County Westmeath

June 21 - Battle of Scarrifholis: the Irish Catholic Ulster Army is routed by the English Parliamentarians under Charles Coote, near Letterkenny, with up to 3,000 dead.

October 25 - Battle of Meelick Island: English Parliamentarians rout the Irish Connaught Army.

December - The Duke of Ormonde, erstwhile Royalist commander in Ireland, gives up his command and leaves for France.


A major sea power, the Dutch in 1650 owned 16,000 merchant ships.

William II became involved in a bitter quarrel with the province of Holland and the powerful Regents of Amsterdam, Andries Bicker and his cousin Cornelis de Graeff. With the Peace of Münster, the Regents wanted to reduce the army, saving money. That would also diminish William's authority. William imprisoned eight members of the States of Holland (including Jacob de Witt) in the castle of Loevestein. In addition, he sent his cousin, Willem Frederik of Nassau-Dietz with an army of 10,000 men to seize Amsterdam by force. Bad weather foiled this campaign, but Amsterdam did give in

November 4 – William III of Orange becomes Prince of the House of Orange nearly at the moment of his birth, succeeding his father who had died of smallpox a few days earlier. He doesn't become stadtholder, so the United Provinces become a true republic. He later, in 1672 becomes Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland, and Overijssel in the Dutch Republic.

November 6 - Just after his attempt to capture Amsterdam from his political opponents, 24-year-old Willem II died of smallpox (aged 24) in Den Hague.


April 27 – Battle of Carbisdale: A Royalist army invades mainland Scotland from the Orkney Islands but is defeated by a Covenanter army.

June 23 – Claimant King Charles II of England, Scotland and Ireland arrives in Scotland, the only of the three Kingdoms that has accepted him as ruler.


The Great Plague of Seville (1647–1652) was a massive outbreak of disease in Spain that killed up to a quarter of Seville's population.

§North America

§United States

June 9 The Harvard Corporation, the more powerful of the two administrative boards of Harvard, is established (the first legal corporation in the Americas).

October 12 - Representatives from New Netherlands and New England met in Hartford to try to settle boundary disputes. The Dutch trading post called the Huys de Hope—the House of Hope—located on the Connecticut River at the mouth of the Little River had been established in 1633; Thomas Hooker and his party had arrived three years later, establishing Hartford just upstream from the Dutch post. English settlers kept pouring in during the 1630s and 1640s, establishing new towns up and down the river and along the coast. On October 12, the colonial representatives signed a treaty, provisionally relinquishing Dutch claims to the Connecticut River Valley.

§South Pacific


King Mandar Syah of Ternate was deposed in a palace coup. He fled to the Dutch VOC fortress on the island. De Vlaming went to Ternate and deposed the usurper, returning Mandar Syah to the throne. He would, in 1652, exact a very high price for returning Syah to the throne.


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