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After a brief but destructive campaign in 1645, Dutchman, Pieter Boon, was able to subdue the tribes in this area, including the Kingdom of Middag



The Stolberg-Wernigerode branch of the family of counts of Stolberg and Wernigerode is founded in Germany.


January 6 - The Committee of Both Kingdoms orders the creation of the New Model Army

January 10 – Archbishop of Canterbury William Laud is executed for treason on Tower Hill, London.

January 14 – English Civil War: Fairfax is appointed Commander-in-Chief.

January 28 - The Long Parliament appoints commissioners to meet with the king's commissioners at Uxbridge

January 29 – English Civil War: Armistice talks open at Uxbridge.

February 15 – English Civil War: The New Model Army is officially founded.

February 22 - Negotiations over the Treaty of Uxbridge end unsuccessfully

February 29 – English Civil War: Uxbridge armistice talks fail.

March 4 – English Civil War: Prince Rupert leaves Oxford for Bristol.

April 3 – The House of Lords passes the Self-Denying Ordinance.

April 23 – English Civil War: One hundred fifty Irish soldiers bound for service with King Charles are captured at sea by Parliamentarians, who celebrate St George's Day by joyfully killing them all at Pembroke.

April 23 - The Long Parliament passes the Self-denying Ordinance

May 9 - Battle of Auldearn

June 1 – English Civil War: Prince Rupert's army sacks Leicester.

June 10 – English Civil War: Oliver Cromwell is confirmed as the Lieutenant-General of the Cavalry.

June 14 – English Civil War – Battle of Naseby: 12,000 Royalist forces are beaten by 15,000 Parliamentarian soldiers.

June 28 – English Civil War: The Royalists lose Carlisle.

July 2 - Battle of Alford

July 10 – English Civil War – Battle of Langport: Cromwell wins at Somerset.

August 15 - Battle of Kilsyth

September 10 – English Civil War: Prince Rupert surrenders Bristol.

September 13 - Battle of Philiphaugh

September 24 – English Civil War – Battle of Rowton Heath: Parliamentarians defeat the Royalist cavalry.

October 8 – English Civil War: The final crushing of Basing House begins.

October 11 – English Civil War: The re-fortification of Bourne, Lincolnshire Castle begins against a threatened Royalist attack.

The Siege of Raglan Castle occurs during the English Civil War.

The Long Parliament outlaws the 1559 version of the Book of Common Prayer.

December 17 - Siege of Hereford ended with the surrender of Royalist garrison.


February 2 – Battle of Inverlochy: The Covenanters are defeated by Montrose.

March 31 – Fearing the spread of the Black Death (plague), Edinburgh Town Council bans all gatherings except weddings and funerals.

April 10 – Because of the plague, the Edinburgh town council orders that the college graduation ceremony should be brought forward so that students can leave the city (in November 19, teaching continues in Linlithgow).

May 9 – Battle of Auldearn: The Covenanters are defeated by Montrose.

July 2: Fight at Alford, Aberdeenshire.

September 13 – Battle of Philiphaugh: Covenanters defeat Montrose at Selkirk.


Shah Jahan's son, Aurangzeb's fortunes continued to decline after his removal as governor of Deccan. In 1645, he was barred from the court for seven months.

§North America


October 8: Jeanne Mance founds the Hôtel-Dieu de Montréal, the first hospital in North America.


August 30 - Dutch and Indians sign peace treaty (New Amsterdam (NY))


July 23 – Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich of Russia comes to the throne.


August 13 – The Treaty of Brömsebro is signed between Sweden and Denmark-Norway, ceding Jemtland, Herjedalen, Gotland and Ösel (Saaremaa) to Sweden, and holding the province of Halland for a period of 30 years as a guarantee.

§South America


April 7 - Michael Cardozo becomes 1st Jewish lawyer in Brazil



Sultan Agung dies and is succeeded by his son Amangkurat I as sultan of Mataram.


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