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Mauritius The Netherlands colonizes Mauritius.



April 15 - Shogunate forces defeat the last rebels of Shimabara Rebellion in the fortress of Hara. Around 37,000 rebels were killed.

Portugese priest and traders are ousted and Portuguese trading ships are banned from the country. Travel abroad by Japanese is further restricted as the death penalty is imposed on anyone who attempts to leave the country or who, having already left, tries to return. In addition, the building of ships with a capacity of more than 2,500 bushels is forbidden.

§Sri Lanka

Dutch settle in Ceylon.



October 21 - Great thunderstorm in Widecombe-in-the-Moor, England


The Finnish postal service, Suomen Posti, is founded.


France declared that it would protect the Catholics within the Ottoman Empire, including the Maronites, with the threat of war should Muslim jihads again be launched against Catholics under the Sultan's rule.


February 28 - signing of Scottish National Covenant in Edinburgh.

Covenanters meet at Muchalls Castle to compose responses to the Bishops of Aberdeen.


A 1638 papal bull protected the existence of Jesuit missions in South America by forbidding the enslavement of natives who joined a mission community. At the same time, Urban repealed the Jesuit monopoly on missionary work in China and Japan, opening these countries to missionaries of all orders.


Shah Jahan and his sons captured the city of Kandahar in 1638 from the Safavids, prompting the retaliation of the Persians led by their powerful ruler Abbas II of Persia

§North America

§United States

March 29 - Swedish arrive on the ships Kalmare Nyckel and F├ągel Grip to America to establish first settlement in Delaware, called New Sweden.

Willem Kieft, Dutch merchant, appointed Director of New Amsterdam by the Dutch West India Company.

Founding of the New Haven Colony by a band of 500 Puritans who fled from persecution in Anglican England. It was the dream of the Reverend John Davenport, the religious leader of the colony, to establish a theocracy and a college to educate its leaders

§U.S. Religion

March 1638, the First Church in Boston conducted a religious trial. They accused Anne Hutchinson of blasphemy. They also accused her of "lewd and lascivious conduct" for having men and women in her house at the same time during her Sunday meetings. This religious court found her guilty and voted to excommunicate her from the Puritan Church for dissenting from Puritan orthodoxy.

During her imprisonment, some of the leaders of the Hutchinsonian movement prepared to leave the colony and settle elsewhere. Nineteen men, including William Hutchinson, met on March 7, 1638, at the home of the wealthy Boston merchant William Coddington. The men formed themselves into a "Bodie Politick" and elected Coddington their judge. They initially planned to move to Jersey or Long Island, but Roger Williams convinced them to settle in the area of Rhode Island, near Williams' Providence Plantations settlement. Coddington purchased Aquidneck island from the Indians and the settlement of Pocasset (now Portsmouth) was founded. Anne Hutchinson followed in April, after the conclusion of her trial.

Anne Hutchinson Puritan woman who was expelled from the Bay Colony. She had strong religious convictions which were at odds with the established Puritan clergy in in the Boston area. Her popularity and charisma created a schism in the Boston church which threatened to destroy the Puritans' religious experiment in New England. Creating the most challenging situation for the ruling magistrates and ministers during her first three years in Boston, she was eventually tried and convicted, then banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony with many of her followers.

When asked, during her civil trial, how she knew that "God will ruine you and your posterity..." she answered "By an immediate revelation," thus proving her heresy to the ministers, leading to excommunication proceedings conducted before the Boston church in March 1638. They accused Hutchinson of blasphemy. They also accused her of "lewd and lascivious conduct" for having men and women in her house at the same time during her Sunday meetings. On 22 March, this religious court found her guilty and voted to excommunicate her from the Puritan Church for dissenting from Puritan orthodoxy.

Cotton, "smarting from a psychological slap Anne had given him earlier in the exommunication proceedings and in danger of losing the respect of the other ministers," had now turned against her and admonished her with these words, "though I have not herd, nayther do I thinke, you have bine unfaythfull to your Husband in his Marriage Covenant, yet that will follow upon it." He finished his admonition, criticizing her pride in saying, "I have often feared the highth of your Spirit and being puft up with your owne parts." By suggesting that Hutchinson supported promiscuity (though far from her intentions), the congregation was distanced from supporting her. Cotton warned the Boston women that Hutchinson was "but a Woman and many unsound and dayngerous principles are held by her." The Reverend Thomas Shepard warned that intellectual activity did not suit women, and that she was likely to "seduce and draw away many, Espetially simple Weomen..." Five supporters of Hutchinson, including Thomas Oliver and her brother-in-law, Richard Scott, were dismissed from the proceedings by Cotton as being either self-interested parties, or having a natural affection for her. Hutchinson was banished, and her leading supporters, including Coddington and John Coggeshall, were given three months to leave the colony, while others were disenfranchised. The court ordered that 58 citizens of Boston and 17 from adjacent towns be disarmed unless they repudiated the "seditious label" given them.

§Caribbean Sea


Shipwrecked sailors from England found the first known European settlement in Belize.

§South America


Pedro Teixeira makes the first ascent of the Amazon River, from its mouth to Quito, Ecuador. The same trip had been made in the opposite direction in 1541.

<Add history that happened in 1638 CE, here.>


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