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1634CE

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§Africa

§Ethiopia

Upon succeeding his father, Fasilides first confined the Catholic hierarchy to Fremona, then in 1634 exiled the Patriarch and several of the foreign priests from Ethiopia, who were exposed to robbery, assaults and other indignities by the local population before reaching the Ottoman Naib at Massawa. The Naib sent them to his superior at Suakin, where the Pasha forced the party to pay a ransom before they could proceed to India. Despite settling for a ransom of 4300 patacas (which he borrowed from local Banyan merchants), at the last moment the Pasha insisted on keeping Patriarch Mendes, two priests, three cleric and two of his servants. Amongst those who departed Suakin 26 August was Jerónimo Lobo.

§Asia

§Japan

Shogun Tokugawa Iemitsu visited Miyako. He led an army of over 300,000 men to Kyōto as a show of force and a reminder to the court and the tozama daimyō that he is in control.

The bakufu structure is strengthened with the creation of the posts of Rōjū (Elders), Wakadoshiyori (Junior Elders), Bugyō (Commissioners), and Hyōjōshū (Judicial Council).

§Southern Asia

§India

English establish a settlement at Cochin, now Kochi on Malabar coast.

§Europe

§Czech Republic

February 24-February 25 - Rebellious soldiers kill Albrecht von Wallenstein.

§England

Opening of Covent Garden Market in London occurs.

In England, Oxford University Press receives its charter and becomes the second of the privileged presses.

§France

In the year 1634, France ruled by Louis XIII and Cardinal Richelieu decided that Ferro's meridian should be used as the reference on maps, since this island is the most western position of the Old World. It was also thought to be exactly 20 degrees west of Paris. Indeed the exact position of Ferro was never considered to be one of the best.

August 18 - Urbain Grandier, a priest accused of sorcery, burned alive in Loudun, France.

Moses Amyraut's Traite de la predestination is published.

First decennial performance of the Oberammergau Passion Plays is held.

§Germany

September 5 and September 6 - Battle of Nördlingen (1634) results in Catholic victory.

§Netherlands

Curaçao is captured by the Dutch.

The beginning of tulpenwoerde, or what the Victorians called tulipomania, is associated with the arrival in the tulip market around 1634 of outsiders who were apparently attracted by stories of rising prices for tulip bulbs in Paris and northern France. Among the entrants into the market--later dismissed by Dutch florists as the 'new entrants'--were weavers, spinners, cobblers, bakers, grocers, and peasants.

§Russia

March 1 - Battle at Smolensk, King Ladislaus IV of Poland defeats Russian army.

§North America

§United States

By 1634, 10,000 radical Puritans had settled in New England.

February 24 - Two vessels, the Ark' and the Dove'', carrying over 300 settlers, arrived at Point Comfort at the mouths of the James, Nansemond, and Elizabeth Rivers, in Virginia.

March 27 The settlers landed at what is now St. Mary's, then the site of a Native American village, and they began the work of establishing a settlement there. The group was made up of primarily Roman Catholic colonists.

Jean Nicolet lands at Green Bay, Wisconsin.

§Sources

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