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§Of World Interest

January 1 – In the Gregorian calendar, January 1 is declared as the first day of the year, instead of March 25.



July 13/14 – English and Dutch ships defeat the Portuguese near Mozambique.



The Dutch were defeated by the Portuguese at the Battle of Macau. The Portuguese, outnumbered and without adequate fortification, managed to repel the Dutch in a much-celebrated victory on 24 June after a three-day battle. To date, the battle remains the only major engagement that was fought between two European powers on the Chinese mainland.

That same year, the Dutch seized Penghu (the Pescadores Islands), built a fort there, and continued to demand that China open up ports in Fujian to Dutch trade. China refused, with the Chinese Governor of Fujian (Fukien) Shang Zhouzuo (Shang Chou-tso) demanding that the Dutch withdraw from the Pescadores to Formosa (Taiwan), where the Chinese would permit them to engage in trade. This led to a war between the Dutch and China between 1622-1624 which ended with the Chinese being successful in making the Dutch withdraw to Taiwan and abandoning the Pescadores.

The Dutch threatened that China would face Dutch raids on Chinese ports and shipping unless the Chinese allowed trading on Penghu and that China not trade with Manila but only with the Dutch in Batavia and Siam and Cambodia. However, the Dutch found out that unlike smaller Southeast Asian Kingdoms, China could not be bullied or intimidated by them. After Shang ordered them to withdraw to Taiwan on September 19 of 1622, the Dutch raided Amoy on October and November. The Dutch intended to "induce the Chinese to trade by force or from fear" by raiding Fujian and Chinese shipping from the Pescadores. Long artillery batteries were erected at Amoy in March 1622 by Colonel Li Kung-hwa as a defence against the Dutch


Hidetada orders the execution of 55 Christian missionaries and converts in Nagasaki.

§Central America


The Governor of Yucatán sent a force of 20 Spaniards and 140 Christian Indian allies to march on Tayasal, in the Petén Basin region, but the Itza Mayans quickly killed them.



August 29 – Thirty Years' War: While on their way to relieve the Siege of Bergen-op-Zoom in the Netherlands, the army of Mansfeld and Christian of Brunswick is blocked by a Spanish army led by Gonzalo de Córdoba. In the Battle of Fleurus, Cordoba manages to fight off the protestant assault. The next day, Cordoba surprises the retreating protestant army with his cavalry, resulting in the destruction of most of the protestant army.


After the 1620 Battle of White Mountain, the Imperial forces invaded Frederick V's Palatinate lands forcing him to flee to Holland in 1622.


February 8 – King James I of England disbands the English Parliament.


April 19 – Richelieu is made Cardinal.

May – Huguenot rebellions: The Huguenot seaside city of Royan is taken by royal forces after a short siege.

June 11 – Huguenot rebellions: The huguenot city of Nègrepelisse in Southern France is taken after a short siege by royal forces. The entire population of the city is subsequently massacred, and the city is burned to the ground.

October 18 – Huguenot rebellions: The first Huguenot rebellion ends with the signing of the Treaty of Montpellier.

October 27 – Huguenot rebellions: The inconclusive Naval battle of Saint-Martin-de-Ré is fought between the Huguenot fleet of La Rochelle commanded by Jean Guiton, and a royal fleet under the command of Charles of Guise.


April 27 - The Battle of Mingolsheim was fought near the German village of Wiesloch, 14 miles south of Heidelberg (and 5 miles south of Wiesloch), between a Protestant army under General von Mansfeld and the margrave of Baden against a Roman Catholic army under Count Tilly.

May 6 – Thirty Years' War: While waiting for the protestant forces of Christian of Brunswick to join them, Mansfeld and Georg Friedrich of Baden-Durlach split up their forces as a diversion for the Imperial army of Tilly. Their plan fails, as Tilly manages to cut off Georg Friedrich at Wimpfen. At the ensuing Battle of Wimpfen, Georg Friedrich's army is almost completely destroyed.

June 20 – Thirty Years' War: Imperial forces under Tilly attempt to prevent Christian of Brunswick from moving his army across the Main river to link up with Mansfeld. At the Battle of Höchst, Tilly manages to inflict considerable casualties on the protestant forces, as well as seizing Brunswick's baggage train. Nonetheless, the bulk of Brunswick's forces manage to unite with Mansfeld.

July 13 – Thirty Years' War: After Mansfeld fails to relieve the siege of Heidelberg, Frederick V, Elector Palatine, cancels Mansfeld's contract and disbands his army. The unemployed army of Mansfeld and Christian of Brunswick is subsequently hired by the Dutch.

September 19 – Thirty Year's War: Heidelberg, the capital of the Electoral Palatinate, is taken by the Imperial army of Tilly after a three-month siege.


July 18 – Eighty Years' War: Bergen-op-Zoom is besieged by a Spanish army under the command of Ambrogio Spinola.

October 2 – Eighty Years' War: After a siege of 86 days, Bergen-op-Zoom is relieved by a Dutch army led by Maurice of Nassau and Ernst von Mansfeld.


Dutch ships under Joachim Swartenhondt, while escorting a convoy, repel a Spanish squadron near Gibraltar.


March 12 – Ignatius of Loyola, Francis Xavier, Teresa of Avila, Isidore the Farmer and Philip Neri are canonized as saints by Pope Gregory XV.

§Middle East


April 22 – Hormuz is captured from the Portuguese by an Anglo-Persian force.

§Near East


May 20 – Ottoman Sultan Osman II is killed by rebelling Janissaries, who revolted when they heard rumours that Osman II was planning to move against them.

Probably the first Sultan to identify and attempt to tackle the Janissaries as a praetorian institution doing more harm than good to the modern empire, Osman II closed their coffee shops (the gathering points for conspiracies against the throne) and started planning to create a new, loyal and ethnic Turkic army consisting of Anatolian, Mesopotamian and Egyptian Turks and Turkmens. The result was a palace uprising by the janissaries, who promptly imprisoned the young sultan. When an executioner was sent to strangle him at Yedikule, Istanbul, Osman II refused to give in and started fighting the man and was only subdued when he was hit on his back with the rear end of an axe by one of his imprisoners. After that he was strangled with a bowstring. Alternatively, Turkish traveller Evliya Celebi recorded that after a putting up a desperate struggle, Osman was killed by the Grand Vizier Davut Pasha (Daud Pasha) from 'compression of his testicles' which was 'a mode of execution reserved by custom to the Ottoman sultans'.

§North America

The European honey bee was first introduced to the East Coast. Changes in plant species populations can be traced through the pollen left in the soil as well as in the diaries and letters colonists and travelers have left behind. The fact that the United States was founded on an agricultural economy that was principally based on the crops brought to North America and which the honey bees were familiar with, and principle pollinators of, is another indication of the influence the honey bee had on the development of the United States.

March 22 – Jamestown massacre: Algonquian natives kill 347 English settlers outside Jamestown, Virginia (1/3 of the colony's population) and burn the Henricus settlement.



Denmark was the first of the three Scandinavian countries where Jews were permitted to settle. Jews were first invited by King Christian IV, who sent a message on November 22, 1622, to the leaders of the Sephardi community in Amsterdam and Hamburg inviting Sephardi Jews to settle in the recently established township of Gluckstadt. Some Jews accepted this invitation and began trading and manufacturing operations there.

§South Pacific


May 25 – The English ship Tryall, which left Plymouth, England for Batavia (now Jakarta), wrecks on the Tryal Rocks, 9 months later (wreck discovered in 1969). The Tryall was a British East India Company owned East Indiaman of approximately 500 tons . She was under the command of John Brooke when she was wrecked on the Tryal Rocks off the north-west coast of Western Australia in 1622. Her crew were the first Englishmen to sight Australia and the wreck is Australia's oldest shipwreck, perhaps except for the Mahogany Ship.

§Dutch East Indies

May 13 – The Eendracht, a VOC ship and the second recorded European ship to make landfall on Australian soil, is wrecked off the western coast of Ambon Island, Dutch East Indies.


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