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§Czech Republic

June 21 - An execution of 27 Czech lords on the Old Town Square in Prague as a consequence of the battle on the "White Mountain".


Protestant Union was formally dissolved.

Early in the spring of 1621, mercenary forces under the command of Georg Friedrich, Margrave of Baden-Durlach crossed the Rhine River from Alsace to junction with forces under Ernst von Mansfeld. Combined, the armies aimed to prevent a link-up between Count of Tilly and Gonzalo de Córdoba , arriving 20,000 strong from the Spanish Netherlands under the orders of General Ambrogio Spinola. Tilly met the Protestant army at its rear guard and drove upon it. This attack was successful until he met the main Protestant body, and was then rebuffed. Tilly retreated and bypassed the stationary Protestant army to link up with de Córdoba later that month. After the battle, Mansfeld found himself at a distinct disadvantage until the armies of Christian of Brunswick could arrive from the north. The two armies would engage later in the month at the Battle of Wimpfen.


February 9 - Pope Gregory XV succeeds Pope Paul V as the 234th pope


Riga falls under rule of Sweden.


March 31 - Philip IV became King of Spain and ruled between 1621 and 1665, sovereign of the Spanish Netherlands, and King of Portugal (as Philip III, Portuguese: 'Filipe III') until 1640. Philip is remembered for his patronage of the arts, including such artists as Diego Velázquez, and his rule over Spain during the challenging period of the Thirty Years War (1618–48).


The Swedish city of Gothenburg is founded by Gustavus Adolphus.

The Swedish king Gustav II Adolf grants city rights to Luleå, Piteå and Torneå (Tornio).

§North America

§United States

February 17 - Miles Standish is appointed as first commander of Plymouth Colony

March 16 - Samoset, a Mohegan, visits the settlers of Plymouth Colony and greets them, "Welcome, Englishmen! My name is Samoset." He had met many Englishmen in the past. The first thing he asked for was beer. The Americans who pushed west from the Atlantic, didn't pioneer a virgin wilderness. They occupied a land long since transformed by European contact. A member of the Wompanoag tribe that resided at that time in what is now Maine, Samoset was a sagamore (subordinate chief) of his tribe and was visiting Chief Massasoit. He had learned his broken English from the English fishermen that came to fish off Monhegan Island. After spending the night with the Pilgrims, he came back two days later with Squanto, who spoke much better English than Samoset.

March 18 - Massasoit went to meet with the Pilgrims. He brought Tisquantum along to translate.

March 22 - The Pilgrims of Plymouth Colony sign a peace treaty with Massasoit of the Wampanoags. An official Native American delegation walked through what is now southern New England to negotiate with a group of foreigners who had taken over a recently deserted Indian settlement. At the head of the party was an uneasy triumvirate: Massasoit, the sachem (political-military leader) of the Wampanoag confederation, a loose coalition of several dozen villages that controlled most of southeastern Massachusetts; Samoset, sachem of an allied group to the north; and Tisquantum ['Squanto'], a distrusted captive, whom Massasoit had reluctantly brought along as an interpreter.

"Massasoit was an adroit politician, but the dilemma he faced would have tested Machiavelli. About five years before, most of his subjects had fallen before a terrible calamity. Whole villages had been depopulated--indeed, the foreigners ahead now occupied one of the empty sites. It was all he could do to hold together the remnants of his people. Adding to his problems, the disaster had not touched the Wampanoag's longtime enemies, the Narragansett alliance to the west. Soon, Massasoit feared, they would take advantage of the Wampanoag's weakness and overrun them.

"Desperate threats require desperate countermeasures. In a gamble, Massasoit intended to abandon, even reverse, a long-standing policy. Europeans had been visiting New England for at least a century. Shorter than the natives, oddly dressed, and often unbearably dirty, the pallid foreigners had peculiar blue eyes that peeped out of the masks of bristly, animal-like hair that encased their faces. They were irritatingly garrulous, prone to fits of chicanery, and often surprisingly incompetent at what seemed to Indians like basic tasks. But they also made useful and beautiful goods--copper kettles, glittering colored glass, and steel knives and hatchets--unlike anything else in New England. Moreover, they would exchange these valuable items for cheap furs of the sort used by Indians as blankets. It was like happening upon a dingy kiosk that would swap fancy electronic goods for customers' used socks. ...

"Over time, the Wampanoag, like other native societies in coastal New England, had learned how to manage the European presence. They encouraged the exchange of goods, but would only allow their visitors to stay ashore for brief, carefully controlled excursions. ... Now Massasoit was visiting a group of British with the intent of changing the rules. He would permit the newcomers to stay for an unlimited time--provided they formally allied with the Wampanoag against the Narragansett.

"Tisquantum, the interpreter, had shown up alone at Massasoit's home a year and a half before. He spoke fluent English, because he had lived for several years in Britain. But Massasoit didn't trust him. ... And he refused to use him to negotiate with the colonists until he had another, independent means of communication with them. ... Their meeting was a critical moment in American history. The foreigners called their colony Plymouth; they themselves were the famous Pilgrims. As schoolchildren learn, at that meeting the Pilgrims obtained the services of Tisquantum, usually known as "Squanto."

April 1 - The Plymouth, Massachusetts colonists created the first treaty with Native Americans.

April 5 - The Mayflower sets sail from Plymouth on a return trip to England.

October - The Pilgrims of Plymouth Colony and Wampanoags celebrate a harvest feast (3 days) later regarded as the "First Thanksgiving" noted for peaceful co-existence.

It isn’t clear whether turkey made it onto the menu at the original 1621 harvest-celebration meal shared among the Pilgrims and the Wampanoag. Wild turkeys were plentiful; the colonist leader William Bradford noted in his diary that “there was a great store” of them. But the only surviving letter about that meal refers to four men who went “a-fowling,” which could have meant anything from ducks to swans.

November 11 - The ship Fortune arrived at Plymouth Colony, with 35 more settlers.

§South America


The Venezuelan city of Petare is founded by Spanish conquistadors as San Jose de Guanarito


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