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In March, the Manchu leader, Nurhaci, was victorious at the Battle of Sarhū. The Battle of Sarhū refers to the series of battles between the Manchus and Ming, which ended in the overwhelming victory of the former.

Official documents exaggerate the numbers of Ming soldiers and Manchus up to 470 thousand and 60 thousand respectively. According to an estimate by Rikusenshi Kenkyu Fukyukai, the Manchu soldiers were ten thousand while the Ming armies with Yehe and Korean reinforcements were one hundred thousand.

Nurhaci adopted the interior line tactics. He defeated 10 times more enemies one by one by concentrating forces. It is worth noting that the Manchu cavalry defeated matchlock and cannon forces, so the Battle of Sarhū is often compared to the Battle of Nagashino.


Serious Famine strikes Japan.


England establishes its first outpost in India.



August 5 - Bohemian forces defeat Austrian at the Battle of Věstonice.

§Czech Republic

June 10 - Protestant forces are defeated in the Battle of Záblatí.


November 16 - foundation of William Parker School, Hastings by the will of Rev William Parker.


August 10 - The Treaty of Angoulême ends civil war in France.


August 28 - Ferdinand II is elected emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.

October 8 - Treaty of Munich is signed by Ferdinand II and Maximilian I, Elector of Bavaria.


November 4- Frederik the V is crowned. The estates chose Frederick since he was the leader of the Protestant Union, a military alliance founded by his father, and hoped for the support of Frederick's father-in-law, James VI of Scotland and I of England. However, James opposed the takeover of Bohemia from the Habsburgs.


May 13 - Dutch statesman Johan van Oldenbarnevelt is executed in The Hague after having been accused of treason.


The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth reaches the height of its territorial extent.


Muchalls Castle reconstruction is completed.

§North America

§United States

Tisquantum, kidnapped native American who was sent to Spain to be sold as a slave, escaped slavery, with the help of Catholic friars, according to some accounts — then somehow found his way to England. He finally made it back to what is now Massachusetts. His return to his tribe was met with some fear and loathing and he was kept in a sort of house arrest.

July 30 - In Jamestown, Virginia, the first representative assembly in the Americas, the House of Burgesses, convenes for the first time.

August - Captain Jope's ship, a Dutch trading vessel, brought the first Africans to what would later be called America. The ship docked near present-day Hampton. Aboard were about 20 Africans who were traded to the English as much-needed workers to cultivate tobacco, the new cash crop of Virginia. Jope traded these Africans for food and supplies. This trade of Africans was as temporary indentured servants in the same way that English whites were owned as laborers in the New World. Because the Spanish Christianized these Africans, this labor arrangement was for a specified time and then they were free to live their lives, just as the English laborers were. These Africans had been stolen from the cargo of a Spanish vessel on the high seas. The enslavement of Africans in America was progressively and intentionally implemented later, beginning with the sentencing of John Punch in 1640. They landed at a spot that would later become Fort Monroe, Va., a fishhook-shaped spit of land near the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay, which had been a military post since the time of the first Jamestown settlers. Coincidentally, this was the place in 1861 that three black slaves fled to after the start of the civil war into the hands of Benjamin Franklin Butler, who after legal wrangling, gave them shelter and began the move toward emancipation.

December 4 - Thirty-eight colonists from Berkeley Parish in England disembark in Virginia and give thanks to God (this is considered by some to be the first Thanksgiving in the Americas).



In 1619, Jan Pieterszoon Coen was appointed Governor-General of the VOC. He saw the possibility of the VOC becoming an Asian power, both political and economic. On 30 May 1619, Coen, backed by a force of nineteen ships, stormed Jayakarta, driving out the Banten forces; and from the ashes established Batavia as the VOC headquarters. In the 1620s almost the entire native population of the Banda Islands was driven away, starved to death, or killed in an attempt to replace them with Dutch plantations. These plantations were used to grow cloves and nutmeg for export. Coen hoped to settle large numbers of Dutch colonists in the East Indies, but implementation of this policy never materialised, mainly because very few Dutch were willing to emigrate to Asia


Tuban, one of the oldest and biggest cities on the coast of Java, was taken by Sultan Agung.


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