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An agent of the English East India Company establishes an English trading post at Hirado.



Ratisbon, Austria joined the Catholic League. The assembly now appointed no less than three war-directors: Duke Maximilian, and Archdukes Albert and Maximilian of Austria. The object of the League was now declared "a Christian legal defense" The membership of Austria made the League part of the struggles between the emperor and his Protestant vassals in Bohemia and Lower Austria, that would lead to the beginning of the Thirty Years' War.


June 29 - Fire destroys London's famed Globe Theatre during a performance of Shakespeare's Henry VIII.

The New River was opened, to supply London with drinking water from Hertfordshire.


A locust swarm destroys La Camarque, France.

§Great Britain

February 14 - Elizabeth, daughter of King James I of England, marries Frederick V, Elector Palatine.

November 3 - English royal favourite Robert Carr is created 1st Earl of Somerset.

James I of England condemns duels in his proclamation Against Private Challenges and Combats.


Ottoman Empire invades Hungary.


August 29 - Sicilians under de Aragon defeat Turkish trade fleet.

§North America


March 27 - First English child born in Canada at Cuper's Cove, Newfoundland to Nicholas Guy.

§North East United States and Canada

March 29 - Samuel de Champlain becomes the first unofficial Governor of New France.

§United States

April - At Jamestown, Virginia, Pocahontas is captured and brought to Jamestown. Pocahontas was captured by the English during Anglo-Indian hostilities and held for ransom. During her captivity, she converted to Christianity and took the name Rebecca. When the opportunity arose for her to return to her people, she chose to remain with the English. The following year she married John Rolfe.

June - At Jamestown, John Rolfe makes the first shipment of West Indian tobacco grown in Virginia to England.

Adriaen Block's ship Tyger is destroyed by fire, forcing him and his crew to spend the winter on Manhattan.

Near Jamestown, Virginia, Sir Thomas Dale starts a settlement called "Bermuda City" which later became part of Hopewell, Virginia.


Fakhr-al-Din's ambitions, popularity and unauthorized foreign contacts alarmed the Ottomans who authorized Hafiz Ahmed Pasha, Muhafiz of Damascus, to mount an attack on Lebanon in 1613 in order to reduce Fakhr-al-Din's growing power. Professor Abu-Husayn has made the Ottoman archives relevant to the emir's career available.

Faced with Hafiz's army of 50,000 men, Fakhr-al-Din chose exile in Tuscany, leaving affairs in the hands of his brother Emir Yunis and his son Emir Ali Beg. They succeeded in maintining most of the forts such as Banias (Subayba) and Niha which were a mainstay of Fakhr ad-Din's power. Before leaving, Fakhr ad-Din paid his standing army of soqbans (mercenaries) two years wages in order to secure their loyalty.

Hosted in Tuscany by the Medici Family, Fakhr-al-Din was welcomed by the grand duke Cosimo II, who was his host and sponsor for the two years he spent at the court of the Medici.


February 7 - An Assembly of the Russian Empire elects Mikhail Romanov to be Tsar of Russia, and establishes the Romanov Dynasty.

§Southeast Asia

§Burma (Modern Myanmar)

September - Burmese forces under King Anaukpetlun recaptured Syriam. Governor De Brito was executed by impalement on a wooden stake


Sultan Agung takes the throne of the kingdom of Mataram on Java.


January 4 - Occultation of Jupiter and Neptune


§Lesser Sunda Islands

The Dutch expelled the Portuguese from their Solor fort in an attempt to wrestle control of the pepper trade.


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