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Homo sapiens appear to have occupied all of Africa about 150,000 years ago


There are fossils of modern humans in Herto from this period. Homo sapiens idaltu, found in the Middle Awash in Ethiopia in 1997, lived about 160,000 years ago.

§South Africa

Caves at the Kasies River mouth show evidence of homo sapiens life dating around 125,000 years ago.



“The finding of 175,000-year-old structures deep inside a cave in France suggests that Neanderthals ventured underground and were responsible for some of the earliest constructions made by hominins.”

The first ever man-made structures have been found by archaeologists excavating caves in southwestern France dating from 176,500 years ago. And it appears they were constructed by Neanderthals.

The strange circular enclosures were built using stalagmites and stalactites, with chunks snapped from the cave roof and floor to form walls, in a similar way to how dry-stone walls are built today, with smaller pieces filling the gaps. They rose 15 inches in height and were 20ft wide.


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