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§World Weather

Both world precipitation and temperatures were moderately above normal.



Yaqob deposed as Emperor of Ethiopia by Za Sellase, who appoints his cousin Za Dengel to replace him.

§Eastern Asia


Tokugawa Ieyasu granted title of shogun from Emperor Go-Yozei of Japan and establishes the Edo or Tokugawa Shogunate in Edo, Japan. This ends the Azuchi-Momoyama period and begins the Edo period.

Ieyasu assumes the title of Shōgun but still makes a show of deferring to Hideyori. He installs his eldest son, Hidetada, in Edo castle and moves to Sumpu in Suruga Province (now Shizuoka and where he had been raised as a child - as a hostage). He continues the political process of consolidating his power while living in Sumpu.



"[The first surge of piracy began] when fifty years of hostilities between England and Spain were finally ended in 1603, [and] hundreds of seamen from the Royal Navy and from privateers were thrown on the streets. Their only skill was in handling a ship, and many turned to piracy. For the next thirty years, shipping in the English Channel, the Thames estuary, and the Mediterranean was ravaged by pirates."

The plague killed 38,000 Londoners

March 24 - Elizabeth I of England dies and is succeeded by her cousin King James I of England, uniting the crowns of Scotland and England.

March - The Union of the Crowns was the accession of James VI, King of Scots, to the throne of England in March 1603, thus uniting Scotland and England under one monarch. This followed the death of his unmarried and childless first cousin twice removed, Queen Elizabeth I of England, the last monarch of the Tudor dynasty.

The term itself, though now generally accepted, is misleading; for properly speaking this was merely a personal or dynastic union, the Crowns remaining both distinct and separate, despite James's best efforts to create a new "imperial" throne of 'Great Britain'. England and Scotland continued to be independent states, despite sharing a monarch, until the Acts of Union in 1707 during the reign of the last monarch of the Stuart Dynasty, Queen Anne.

April 28 – Funeral of Elizabeth I of England in Westminster Abbey.

When Elizabeth died in 1603 Raleigh was implicated in a plot to overthrow the new king, James I.

July 25 - Coronation of James I of England at the age of 13 months. The care of James was entrusted to the Earl and Countess of Mar, "to be conserved, nursed, and upbrought" in the security of Stirling Castle. The boy was formally crowned at the age of thirteen months as King James VI of Scotland at the Church of the Holy Rude, Stirling, on 29 July 1567. The sermon was preached by the Calvinist John Knox. And, in accordance with the religious beliefs of most of the Scottish ruling class, James was brought up as a member of the Protestant national Church of Scotland, his education supervised by historian and poet George Buchanan, who subjected him to regular beatings but also instilled in him a lifelong passion for literature and learning.

James VI, Stuart king of Scotland, whose family had ruled Scotland for almost 200 years, was given the throne of England after a succession dispute since he was great-great-grandson of England's Henry VII. He immediately moved to England, the largest of his realms, only returning to Scotland once in 1617. He ruled as James I and is still famous for his sponsorship of the King James translation of the Bible. The Stuarts were enforcers of the state religion -- the Anglican church -- at a time when Protestantism was rising in both England and Scotland. The Stuart kings and queens ruled both independent kingdoms until the Act of Union in 1707 November 17 - Sir Walter Raleigh goes on trial for treason in the converted Great Hall of Winchester Castle. Raleigh was imprisoned in the Tower of London until 1616 CE.

The Stationers formed the English Stock, a joint stock publishing company funded by shares held by members of the Company. This profitable business gained many patents of which the richest was for almanacks including Old Moore's Almanack. The business employed out-of-work printers and disbursed some of the profit to the poor.


August - Samuel de Champlain returns to France


The Hamburg Parliament called for the banishment of the Portuguese Jews, who 3 years prior began creating small synagogue congregations.


English crush Irish rebellion. Hugh O'Neill, 2nd Earl of Tyrone surrenders.


Accademia dei Lincei founded.


Rebellion in Transylvania.

§Middle East


December 22 - Mehmed III Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies and is succeeded by his son Ahmed I.


The worst famine ever continues its 3rd year and leads to the overthrow of the reigning tsar.

§Southeast Asia

§Burma (Modern Myanmar)

De Brito declared independence from the Arakanese king and established Portuguese rule under Aires de Saldanha, Viceroy of Portuguese India.


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Page last modified on September 04, 2016, at 02:55 PM