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1600CE

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§Of World Interest

The World population is estimated between 545 and 579 million people.

§Asia

§Japan

October 21 - Battle of Sekigahara in Japan, in which Tokugawa Ieyasu defeated Ishida Mitsunari, setting the stage for the rule of the Tokugawa shogunate. End of the Azuchi-Momoyama period and beginning of the Edo period.

The Battle of Sekigahara (Shinjitai: 関ヶ原の戦い; Kyūjitai: 關ヶ原の戰ひ ,Sekigahara no Tatakai?), popularly known as the Realm Divide (天下分け目の戦い ,Tenka Wakeme no Tatakai?), was a decisive battle on October 21, 1600 (Keichō 5, 15th day of the 9th month) which cleared the path to the Shogunate for Tokugawa Ieyasu. Though it would take three more years for Ieyasu to consolidate his position of power over the Toyotomi clan and the daimyo, Sekigahara is widely considered to be the unofficial beginning of the Tokugawa bakufu, the last shogunate to control Japan.

November - Mōri Terumoto surrenders Ōsaka castle to Ieyasu, who now becomes the de facto ruler of the country. Ieyasu decides that he will reside in his castle in Edo.

§Europe

§Austria

October - Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor, shows the first signs of his growing mental instability. He is now in the middle of his war with the Ottoman Turks, known as The Long War.

§Czech Republic

July - Astronomer Longomontanus arrived in Prague, where he worked with the Moon orbital theory; he brought the rest of Tycho Brahe's astronomical instruments with him. (All arrived by November 10th).

§England

Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud, the principal secretary to the Moroccan ruler Mulai Ahmad al-Mansur, visited England as an ambassador to the court of queen Elizabeth I, in order to negotiate an Anglo-Moroccan alliance against Spain. Elizabeth "agreed to sell munitions supplies to Morocco, and she and Mulai Ahmad al-Mansur talked on and off about mounting a joint operation against the Spanish". Discussions however remained inconclusive, and both rulers died within two years of the embassy.

December 31st, a royal charter incorporated the British East India Company in London.

§Germany

The famed window in Hamelin depicting the "Pied Piper" was destroyed.

Portuguese Jews, thought to be Roman Catholic, organized small synagogue congregations in Hamburg.

§Italy

In Rome, Italian philosopher, priest, cosmologist, and occultist, Giordano Bruno was imprisoned for seven years during his lengthy trial, lastly in the Tower of Nona. Some important documents about the trial are lost, but others have been preserved, among them a summary of the proceedings that was rediscovered in 1940. The numerous charges against Bruno, based on some of his books as well as on witness accounts, included blasphemy, immoral conduct, and heresy in matters of dogmatic theology, and involved some of the basic doctrines of his philosophy and cosmology. Luigi Firpo lists them as follows:

  1. Holding opinions contrary to the Catholic Faith and speaking against it and its ministers.
  2. Holding erroneous opinions about the Trinity, about Christ's divinity and Incarnation.
  3. Holding erroneous opinions about Christ.
  4. Holding erroneous opinions about Transubstantiation and Mass.
  5. Claiming the existence of a plurality of worlds and their eternity.
  6. Believing in metempsychosis and in the transmigration of the human soul into brutes.
  7. Dealing in magics and divination.
  8. Denying the Virginity of Mary.

Bruno continued his Venetian defensive strategy, which consisted in bowing to the Church's dogmatic teachings, while trying to preserve the basis of his philosophy. In particular Bruno held firm to his belief in the plurality of worlds, although he was admonished to abandon it. His trial was overseen by the inquisitor, Cardinal Robert Bellarmine, who demanded a full recantation, which Bruno eventually refused. Instead he appealed in vain to Pope Clement VIII, hoping to save his life through a partial recantation. The Pope expressed himself in favor of a guilty verdict. Consequently, Bruno was declared a heretic, handed over to secular authorities on February 8, 1600. At his trial he listened to the verdict on his knees, then stood up and said: "Perhaps you, my judges, pronounce this sentence against me with greater fear than I receive it." A month or so later he was brought to the Campo de' Fiori, a central Roman market square, his tongue in a gag, tied to a pole naked and burned at the stake, on February 17, 1600.

§Italian Arts

October 6th, Jacopo Peri's Euridice, the earliest surviving Opera, premiered in Florence.

§Netherlands

July 2nd, at the Battle of Nieuwpoort, Dutch forces under Maurice of Nassau defeated Spanish forces under Archduke Albert of Austria in a battle on the coastal dunes.

Jacob van Neck's fleet returned from the Spice Islands with pepper that returned a 400% profit.

§San Marino

San Marino forms a constitution which continues into the 21st century as the oldest extant constitution.

§Scandinavia

§Denmark

On January 20th, from one of his letters to Tycho Brahe, famous Danish astronomer, it appears that the emperor Rudolf II asked for some piece of astrological advice.

Then, on February 3rd, Kepler arrived at Benatký to assist Tycho Brahe.

July 10 - Tycho observed a solar eclipse from Benatký. Shortly afterwards, he moved to Prague.

§South America

§Peru

Huaynaputina, a volcano in Peru, erupted spewing large amounts of sulfur into the atmosphere causing world-wide climate effect.

§South Pacific

§Burma (Modern Myanmar)

Filipe de Brito e Nicote had extended his power across the Bago River to Dagon and the surrounding countryside.

§Philippines

December 14th, the Spanish galleon San Diego was sunk off the Philippine coast.

§Indonesia

The Dutch joined forces with the Muslim Hituese on Ambon Island in an anti-Portuguese alliance, in return for which the Dutch were given the sole right to purchase spices from Hitu

§Sources

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