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La Marche is a cave near the commune of Lussac-les-Châteaux. The cave contains art which dates to around 15,000 years ago. The cave art depicts animals and humans carved and painted on slate. The outstanding aspect of the human depictions is the presence of clothing which has led to a lot of speculation regarding the people of the era, and indeed whether the era is entirely accurate.

§North America

A cache of items at the Buttermilk Creek site near Austin, TX dates back to around 15,500 years ago, predating the Clovis culture which appeared about 2500 years later. This find corrects the dating of human habitation for North America and possibly South America.

§The first humans in the Americas? (and their ultimate impact on the fauna of the continent)

It was always a popular idea that humans migrated from Asia to the Americas around 15,000 years ago across the Bering land bridge which was produced by the Last Glacial Maximum, when global temperatures dropped and created major polar ice sheets which absorbed water from the world’s oceans and caused more “land” to be exposed around the world. However, a “long chronological theory” challenges this population of the Americas and suggests that a migration occurred much earlier, even as long as 40,000 years ago. This is based on dating of sites and artefacts of the Americas in recent times.

Whether it’s true or not, the presence of humans in the Americas certainly must have had an impact on the fauna of the continent. Particularly of North America, where there are a number of animals which existed that became extinct coincidentally with the arrival of humans. The large stag-moose which had a elk type head and went extinct around 11,500 years ago. The large American Lion which became extinct around 11,000 years ago. A bison called bison antiquues is believed to have become extinct around 10,000 years ago. A giant beaver like animal the size of a black bear which is called a casteroides became extinct around 10,000 years ago. Camelops was a type of camel which lived in North America until around 10,000 years ago. A special type of sloth which had a terrestrial lifestyle, as opposed to the ones in the world today which are very arboreal, is believed to have become extinct around 10,000 years ago.

Other significant animals suffered a similar fate. The elephant like mastodon which disappeared from America around 10,000 years ago. Mammoths disappeared from the American mainland around 10,000 years ago. Horses, which only exist in America today due to introduction from the other side of the Atlantic, were actually in fact naturally present in the Americas, and were all but gone around 11,000 years ago. The very large short-faced bear which completely outsized today's grizzlies or brown bears went extinct around 11,000 years ago.

It would be completely wrong to discount other arguments relating to this mass North American megafauna extinction. One of the arguments would be climate change, however it would be fair to say that these creatures suffered climate change in an evolving ecosystem, so whilst this may have added pressure it seems the most unlikely. The factor of new disease brought in by humans or their domesticated animals simply cannot be discounted as a factor.

§Missoula Flood

15 - 25 Thousand Years Ago

The Missoula flood was caused by a natural ice-dam failure, which occurs when a glacier slides into a river valley, in this case the Clark Fork River, and blocks the flow of water.

When the natural ice dam failed, water rushed out of the breached dam at a rate of more than 600 million cubic feet (17 million cubic meters) a second. Scientists think it may have taken only a few days to empty a lake that had taken decades to fill. The deluge tore away everything in its path and moved huge boulders several miles, stacking them into heaps hundreds of feet high.

§South America


The archaeological site of Monte Verde in the Los Lagos region of Chile is one of a number of sites in the Americas who’s dating challenges the theory of the Clovis First theory of human migration from Asia to the Americas.

The flowing of the Chinchihuapi Creek had revealed historic rocks of geological interest including bones and charcoal which when dated suggests human occupation from around 14,800BCE.


Deserts of the world seem a world away from glacial activity, but the formation of large ice sheets during the Last Glacial Maximum caused everywhere in the world to become generally drier. Many of the worlds deserts expanded as a result of the lack of moisture.


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