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§Of World Interest

November 28 - In Stratford-upon-Avon, 18 year-old William Shakespeare and 26 year-old Anne Hathaway pay a 40-pound bond for their marriage license (Shakespeare would later become one of the greatest playwrights in history).


In Tibet, foundation of Kumbum.

§Eastern Asia


In China, Jesuit Matteo Ricci is allowed to enter China.


Reign of Toyotomi Hideyoshi until 1598 CE

In the 1582 siege of Takamatsu, Toyotomi Hideyoshi laid siege to Takamatsu Castle, which was controlled by the Mōri clan. He diverted a nearby river with dikes to surround and flood the castle, leading to a relatively speedy surrender. He also constructed towers on barges from which his arquebusiers could keep up a constant rate of fire and be unhindered themselves by the flooding. As the battle grew more intense, the garrison received reinforcements from the Mōri, Kikkawa and Kobayakawa clans, and Hideyoshi sent for aid from his lord Oda Nobunaga. In response, Nobunaga sent a contingent of men west, to make their way to Takamatsu, while he himself stopped at the Honnō-ji for a time; during this stay, he would be betrayed and killed.

Hideyoshi soon learned of the death of his lord, which encouraged him to hurry the arrangement of surrender terms. Shimizu Muneharu, the castle's commander, was forced to commit suicide in a boat on the artificial lake created by the flooding, in full view.

The 1582 siege of Takatō was one of the final battles of the Takeda clan against the forces of Oda Nobunaga and Tokugawa Ieyasu.

After the destruction of the Takeda in Kai province in 1582, resulting in the death of Takeda Katsuyori and many others, Takeda Morinobu (also known as Nishina Morinobu), the fifth son of the famed Takeda Shingen, fortified himself within the Takatō castle. Oda Nobutada ordered that a certain priest would be sent to Morinobu to mediate, but Morinobu responded by cutting the unfortunate man's nose and ears, and then sent him back. Following this, Nobutada launched a full-scale attack on the castle, effectively killing Morinobu.

The Battle of Temmokuzan (天目山の戦い, Temmokuzan no Tatakai?) in Japan, also known as the Battle of Toriibata, is regarded as the last stand of the Takeda family. This was the final attempt by Takeda Katsuyori to resist the combined forces of Tokugawa Ieyasu and Oda Nobunaga, who had been campaigning against him for some time.

In his bid to hide from his pursuers, Katsuyori burned his castle at Shinpujō and fled into the mountains, to another Takeda stronghold, called Iwadono, and held by Oyamada Nobushige, an old Takeda retainer. Katsuyori was denied entry by Oyamada, and committed suicide while his army held off their pursuers.

The 1582 Siege of Uozu Castle (魚津城の戦い, Uozu-jō no tatakai?) was part of a border dispute between two daimyō of Japan's Sengoku period. The territories of Oda Nobunaga and the Uesugi clan, led by Uesugi Kagekatsu, met in Etchu Province; both were under threat from the Ikkō-ikki of Etchu, and from one another.

Seeking to ensure the security of Nobunaga's possessions, Shibata Katsuie and Sasa Narimasa, two of his chief generals, rode north from Toyama Castle, and laid siege to both the town of Uozu and nearby Matsukura Castle with 16000 men

Uozu Castle fell on June 3, 1582; Oda Nobunaga would die three days later, in Kyoto, in the Incident at Honnō-ji.

June 21 - Assassinations at Honnō-ji of Oda Nobunaga and his eldest son Nobutada at the hands of Akechi Mitsuhide.

The Battle of Yamazaki (山崎の戦い, Yamazaki no tatakai?) was fought in 1582 in Yamazaki, Japan, located in current day Kyoto Prefecture. This battle is sometimes referred to as the Battle of Tennozan.

Akechi Mitsuhide, a retainer of Oda Nobunaga, attacked Nobunaga as he rested in Honnō-ji, and forced him to commit seppuku. Mitsuhide then took over Nobunaga's power and authority. Thirteen days later, Toyotomi Hideyoshi met Mitsuhide at Yamazaki and defeated him, avenging his lord (Nobunaga) and taking Nobunaga's authority and power for himself.

Following the sudden death of Oda Nobunaga, the Hōjō family soon took the advantage of the situation to launch a certain attack against Nobunaga's senior retainer, Takigawa Kazumasu, who had ended up receiving territories nearby following the defeat of Takeda Katsuyori the same year in 1582. On the border between the Kozuke and Musashi provinces, Kazumasu would follow in battling out against the Hōjō at Kanegawa. Kazumasu, however, ended up being defeated which was supported through the fact that Kazumasu had 18,000 troops, while the Hōjō wielded 55,000. After Kazumasu's defeat, he would retreat to Nagashima.

The Battle of Uchidehama (打出浜の戦い, Uchidehama no Tatakai?) took place following the Battle of Yamazaki. The forces of Toyotomi Hideyoshi pursued the defeated Akechi clan to Uchidehama and engaged the clan again there. Akechi Mitsuharu led the Akechi, as his cousin, Mitsuhide, died at Yamazaki. Mitsuharu fought Hori Hidemasa, who was pursuing the Akechi on behalf of Toyotomi Hideyoshi at Uchidehama, and lost.


October 4 of Julian calendar (Thursday) - Italy, Poland, Portugal, and Spain make the next day Friday, October 15 of the Gregorian Calendar, skipping over 10 days. Other countries follow at various later dates.


November 27 - 18-year-old William Shakespeare marries Anne Hathaway, a farmer’s daughter eight years his senior. It's likely that she was already 3 months pregnant with their first daughter. Instead of the customary three times, the couple’s intention to marry was only announced at church once—evidence that the union was hastily arranged because of Anne’s eyebrow-raising condition


December 9 of Julian calendar (Sunday) - France makes the next day Monday, December 20 of the Gregorian Calendar.


January 2 - Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn re-founded and opened the University of Würzburg. It became a model for all similar Counter-Reformation institutions. Under the Jesuits it flourished, grew rapidly, and furnished the see with the priests and officials needed to prosecute the Counter-Reformation. The bishop took decisive steps against Protestantism. He banished all Lutheran preachers from his territory and removed all priests who were unwilling to observe the rules of their office. Public officials had to be Catholics, and none but Catholic teachers could be appointed. He began, moreover, courses of careful instruction for non-Catholics, and to some extent threatened them with penalties and even with banishment. Within three years about 100,000 returned to the Catholic Church.


During a revolt in Munster led by Gerald FitzGerald, Earl of Desmond, an estimated 30,000 Irish people starved to death. The poet Edmund Spenser wrote that the victims "were brought to such wretchedness as that any stony heart would have rued the same". Elizabeth advised her commanders that the Irish, "that rude and barbarous nation", be well treated; but she showed no remorse when force and bloodshed were deemed necessary


February 10 - François, Duke of Anjou, arrives in the Netherlands, where he is personally welcomed by William the Silent.

Parma made further advances into Gelderland and Overijssel. There the war had been going to and fro between the forces of the Union of Utrecht and the royalists.

Francisco Verdugo, who had replaced Rennenberg who had died the previous Summer, pushed south to Lochem in 1582 after first having seen off the English mercenaries of Sir John Norris (of Rijmenam fame) opposing him in Friesland. Capturing Lochem might topple Zutphen and Deventer also. He was forced to lift his siege of Lochem, but on his way back north captured the fortress city of Steenwijk, the key to the north-east of the Netherlands, which always had eluded Rennenberg.

Orange was the victim of an assassination attempt by Juan de Jáuregui on March 18, 1582. He survived, but suffered severe injuries which put him out of the running for an appreciable time

§Papal States

February 24 - Pope Gregory XIII implements the Gregorian Calendar. The calendar was changed when Gregory decreed that the day after Thursday, October 4, 1582 would be not Friday, October 5, but Friday, October 15, 1582. He issued the papal bull Inter gravissimas to promulgate the new calendar on February 24, 1582. On October 15, 1582, this calendar replaced the Julian calendar, in use since 45 BC, and has become universally used today. Because of his decree, the reform of the Julian calendar came to be known as the Gregorian calendar.

The switchover was bitterly opposed by much of the populace, who feared it was an attempt by landlords to cheat them out of a week and a half's rent. However, the Catholic countries of Spain, Portugal, Poland, and Italy complied. France, some states of the Dutch Republic and various Catholic states in Germany and Switzerland (both countries were religiously split) followed suit within a year or two, and Hungary followed in 1587. People who still celebrated the new year on the original date were made victims of various pranks on April 1. This may or may have been the origin of April Fools' Day.

However, more than a century would pass before Protestant Europe would accept the new calendar. Denmark, the remaining states of the Dutch Republic, and the Protestant states of the Holy Roman Empire and Switzerland adopted the Gregorian reform in 1700-1701. By this time, the calendar trailed the seasons by 11 days. Great Britain and its American colonies reformed in 1752, where Wednesday, September 2, 1752 was immediately followed by Thursday, September 14, 1752; they were joined by the last Protestant holdout, Sweden, on March 1, 1753.

The Gregorian Calendar was not accepted in eastern Christendom for several hundred years, and then only as the civil calendar. The Gregorian Calendar was instituted in Russia by the Bolsheviks in 1917, and the last Eastern Orthodox country to accept the calendar was Greece in 1923.


The naval Battle of Ponta Delgada, also called the Battle of Vila Franca, also called the Battle of São Miguel, took place on July 26, 1582, in the sea near the Azores, off São Miguel Island, as part of the 1580 Portuguese succession crisis. This battle resulted in the defeat of a fleet manned by Portuguese exiles and French adventurers under António, Prior of Crato (Portuguese claimant to the Portuguese throne against Spanish Habsburg King Philip) and Filippo di Piero Strozzi, a Florentine exile in the service of France, by a Portuguese and Spanish fleet under Álvaro de Bazán, 1st Marquis of Santa Cruz.

The fleet of António was not only utterly defeated on this day, but his supporters were also defeated in the following year at what is usually called the Battle of Terceira near Terceira Island on July 27, 1583.

These battles, included in the War of the Portuguese Succession, marked the end of the Philip II's problems with António, Prior of Crato, and the full establishment of the Iberian Union, which would last until 1640.

Upon Álvaro de Bazan's victory in 1582 at São Miguel, he ordered the beheading of all captured French nobles in one of two scaffolds he had erected on the island. The common French soldiers, who had been captured, were hanged. More than 100 French were executed.


The Battle of Chuvash Cape (October 23, 1582) led to the victory of a Russian expedition under Yermak Timofeyevich and the fall of Siberia Khanate and the end of Khan Kuchum's power. The battle took place near Qashliq (Isker).

§South America


April 16 - Spanish conquistador Hernando de Lerma founds the settlement of Salta, Argentina.


  • Teresa of Avila, Roman Catholic Nun, canonized a saint, She died either before midnight of 4 October or early in the morning of 15 October which is celebrated as her feast day. (According to liturgy as then in use, she died on the 15th in any case, counted from the sunset of the preceding day; 4 October, as it were, is occupied precisely on that rationale by the feast of St. Francis, who died on the evening of the 3rd, Aged 62.


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