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By 1578, all revolts had ended, leaving the Ottomans in control of the important ports of Massawa and Hergigo and their environs, and leaving the province of Habesh to Beja Na'ibs (deputies). The Ottomans maintained their dominion over the northern coastal areas for nearly 300 years.


Emperor Sarsa Dengel of Ethiopia kills Bahr negus Yeshaq, finally ending his rebellion.


August 4 - Battle of Al Kasr al Kebir - The Moors defeat the Portuguese. King Sebastian I of Portugal is defeated and killed in North Africa, leaving his elderly uncle, Cardinal Henry, as his heir. This initiates a succession crisis in Portugal.



The title of Dalai Lama was first bestowed by the Mongolian ruler Altan Khan upon Sonam Gyatso in 1578. He was an abbot at the Drepung monastery who was widely considered the most eminent lama of his time. Although Sonam Gyatso became the first lama to hold the title "Dalai Lama", due to the fact that he was the third member of his lineage, he became known as the "3rd Dalai Lama". The previous two titles were conferred posthumously upon his earlier incarnations.



The Ottoman Empire conquers Abkhazia.


Battle of Wenden: The Russians are defeated by the Swedes, who proceed to take Polotsk.


January 31 - Battle of Gembloux: Spanish forces under Don John of Austria and Alexander Farnese defeat the Dutch. Alexander Farnese begins to recover control of the French-speaking Southern Netherlands.

§Belgian Industry

Plantin's De Gulden Passer Publshing house, which just seven years previously had been granted the exclusive right to print and sell all liturgical publications for Spain and its colonies, ironically became the official printer of the protestant Staten Generaal (States-General), which led the insurgence against Spanish rule.


Sixth and so far the last outbreak of the sweating sickness in England.


Work began on the Pont Neuf bridge in Paris. This was the first major bridge to be built without houses or buildings lining the bridge, allowing for a view of the great city. This bridge, begun by Henri IV was built entirely of stone, rather than wood as many other bridges of the time. It was designed to win the hearts and minds of the people and it succeeded. It opened in 1607 CE.


Kampen changed ownership again after the Siege of Kampen, led by George Lalaing.

October 1 - Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma, succeeds Don Juan as Spanish Governor-General of the Netherlands. Don Juan died of Typhus in the Low Countries. His body was cut in three parts and secretly passed through France to Spain where it was reassembled and given proper burial.


Antonio Pérez removed himself from Madrid and, on the night of March 31, 1578, in a narrow alley the assassins stabbed Juan de Escobedo to death. Insausti was the name of the killer and was helped by a group of loyals of Antonio Pérez, people from Aragon, where Antonio Pérez was from and where he was most powerful and influential. Immediately rumors were flying that Antonio Pérez was behind the killing.

§North America


May 31 - Martin Frobisher sails from Harwich, England to Frobisher Bay, Canada, eventually to mine fool's gold, used to pave streets in London.

Martin Frobisher held the first celebration of Thanksgiving by Europeans in North America at Newfoundland by the Frobisher Expedition.


Cocoliztli, the pestilence, continued killing millions of Mexicans. It was later found to be Typhoid Fever.


An outlaw band of Cossacks crossed the Ural Mountains and conquered the Tartars of central Russia.

§South America


Francisco de Vitoria, O.P. became the archbishop of Córdoba (Tucuman) four years after the death of the previous archbishop.


  • Japan's Ten Year War


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