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An Ottoman invading force under Suleiman I conquered Massawa, a Red Sea port, building what is now considered the 'old town' of Massawa on Batsi island. They also conquered the towns of Hergigo, and Debarwa, the capital city of the contemporary Bahr negus (ruler), Yeshaq. Suleiman's forces fought as far south as southeastern Tigray before being repulsed. Yeshaq was able to retake much of what the Ottomans captured with Abyssinian (Ethiopian) assistance, but he later twice revolted against the Emperor of Abyssinia with Ottoman support in an attempt to take the Abyssinian throne.



John Dee, adviser to the Queen on matters of astrology and science, published General and Rare Memorials pertayning to the Perfect Arte of Navigation, a work that set out his vision of a maritime empire and asserted English territorial claims on the New World. He coined the term, "British Empire."

December 13 - Sir Francis Drake sets out from Plymouth, England, on his round-the-world voyage. He originally set out with five ships with the goal of raiding Spanish holdings along the Pacific coast of the New World.


September 17 - Peace of Bergerac signed between Henry III of France and the Huguenots.


The Union of Brussels is formed. First without the Protestant counties of Holland and Zeeland, which was accepted by king Philip II of Spain. Later with the Protestants, which meant open rebellion of the whole of the Netherlands.

Tholen joined the side of the rebels led by William of Orange in 1577, as the last of the Zeeland towns. But Brabant, on the opposite bank of the narrow Eendracht stream, remained under Spanish control.


In early 1577 Don Juan was in the low Countries and Escobedo, his secretary, was visiting Madrid having been sent there by Don Juan. After three clumsy attempts to poison Escobedo failed, Antonio PĂ©rez recruited swordsmen to assassinate him.

§North America


Cocoliztli, the pestilence, continued killing millions of Mexicans. It was later found to be Typhoid Fever.

§South America


The church in San Pedro in the Atacama Desert in Chile was built.

Sir Francis Drake sailed through the Strait of Magellan.


  • Japan's Ten Year War


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