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1547CE

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§Europe

§France

July 31 - Henry II succeeds his father Francis I as King of France.

Chambre Ardente is established in Paris.

Nostradamus settled in Salon-de-Provence. He married again and had 6 children.

§Germany

April 24 - Battle of Mühlberg - Emperor Charles V defeats the forces of the Schmalkaldic League under the Elector John Frederick of Saxony.

§Great Britain

February 20 - Nine year old son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour,, Edward VI of England is crowned at Westminster Abbey.

April - Catherine Parr, widow of King Henry VIII of England, secretly marries Thomas Seymour, 1st Baron Seymour of Sudeley.

§Scotland

September 10 - Battle of Pinkie. An English army under the Duke of Somerset, Protector of England, defeats a Scottish army under James Hamilton, 2nd Earl of Arran, the Regent. The English seize Edinburgh.

The Battle of Pinkie Cleugh, along the banks of the River Esk near Musselburgh, Scotland was part of the War of the Rough Wooing. It was the last battle to be fought between the Scottish and the English Royal armies and the first "modern" battle to be fought in the British Isles. It was a catastrophic defeat for the Scots caused by the use of naval artillery by the English for the first time in a land battle in Britain. In Scotland, it was known as Black Saturday

§Switzerland

By 1547, opposition to John Calvin and other French refugee ministers had grown to constitute the majority of the syndics, the civil magistrates of Geneva. On 27 June an unsigned threatening letter in Genevan dialect was found at the pulpit of St. Pierre Cathedral where Calvin preached. Suspecting a plot against both the church and the state, the council appointed a commission to investigate. Jacques Gruet, a Genevan member of Favre's group, was arrested and incriminating evidence was found when his house was searched. Under torture, he confessed to several crimes including writing the letter left in the pulpit which threatened God and his ambassadors and endeavouring to subvert church order. The civil court condemned him to death and, with Calvin's consent, he was beheaded on 26 July.

§North America

§Mexico

Cocoliztli, the pestilence, continued millions of Mexicans, up to 80% of the population.

§Russia

Ivan was crowned tsar with Monomakh's Cap at the Cathedral of the Dormition at age sixteen on January 16th. Despite calamities triggered by the Great Fire of 1547, the early part of his reign was one of peaceful reforms and modernization. Ivan revised the law code (known as the sudebnik), created a standing army (the streltsy), established the Zemsky Sobor, the council of the nobles (known as the Chosen Council), and confirmed the position of the Church with the Council of the Hundred Chapters, which unified the rituals and ecclesiastical regulations of the entire country. He introduced the local self-management in rural regions, mainly in the Northeast of Russia, populated by the state peasantry. During his reign the first printing press was introduced to Russia (although the first Russian printers Ivan Fedorov and Pyotr Mstislavets had to flee from Moscow to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania).

The Great Fire of Moscow destroyed sections of Moscow built almost entirely of wood. The fire began on June 21st, several months after Ivan IV was officially crowned the Tsar. The fire displaced about 25,000 households and killed about 1,700 people, causing wide-spread poverty. The Muscovites put the blame on the tsar's maternal relatives from the Glinski family. A rebellion began and Yuri Glinski was stoned. Yuri Glinski's brother, Mikhail Glinski attempted to escape to Lithuania but failed. The rebellion resulted in the fall of the Glinski party and eventually strengthened the positions of the young tsar.

§Deaths

  • December 2 - Hernan Cortez, Spanish Conquistador that invaded Mexico.
  • January 28 - King Henry VIII of England

§Sources

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