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Central America


The conquest of the Yucatán was considered complete after fighting and revolts had continued for years. The Spanish and Xiu defeated an army of the combined forces of the states of Eastern Yucatán. Periodic revolts througout the Spanish colonial era would be violently put down by Spanish troops.



Trinity College, Cambridge and Christ Church, Oxford are founded by Henry VIII of England.

Rebellions in East Anglia break out against the Reformation.


Peace is declared between England and France.


February 15 - Martin Luther's last sermon was delivered at Eisleben, his place of birth, three days before his death. It was "entirely devoted to the obdurate Jews, whom it was a matter of great urgency to expel from all German territory," according to Léon Poliakov. James Mackinnon writes that it concluded with a "fiery summons to drive the Jews bag and baggage from their midst, unless they desisted from their calumny and their usury and became Christians." Luther said, "we want to practice Christian love toward them and pray that they convert," but also that they are "our public enemies ... and if they could kill us all, they would gladly do so. And so often they do."

February 18th, Reformation leader, Martin Luther, died in Eisleben, Germany and buried in the Castle Church in Wittenburg.

Luther's wife, Katharina von Bora flees to Magdeburg, Germany.

July 20 - Elector John Frederick I and Landgrave Philip I were placed under the Imperial ban, under the pretext that they had deposed the Catholic Duke Henry V of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel in 1542. Duke Maurice of Saxony took the chance and in October with the aid of Ferdinand I of Habsburg, King of Bohemia, invaded the lands of his rival and cousin in Ernestine Saxony, forcing Elector John Frederick I to turn his troops around. He quickly came on from Swabia and liberated Ernestine Saxony with his army, whereafter he in turn invaded Albertine Saxony and the adjacent Bohemian lands. The onset of winter left the armed conflict inconclusive.


Michelangelo Buonarroti is made chief architect of St. Peter's Basilica.


Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha died of old age in his seaside palace in the Büyükdere neighbourhood of Istanbul, on the northwestern shores of the Bosphorus.

North America


Cocoliztli, the pestilence, continued millions of Mexicans, up to 80% of the population.

South America


Potosí, in modern day Bolivia is founded by the Spanish as a mining town. The silver mined from Huayna Potosí mountain in Potosi provides most of the wealth the Spanish empire would amass until its fall in the early 19th century.


  • January 11 – Gaudenzio Ferrari, Italian painter and sculptor (b. c. 1471)
  • January 21 – Azai Sukemasa, Japanese samurai and warlord (b. 1491)
  • February 18 – Martin Luther, German religious reformer (b. 1483)
  • March 1 – George Wishart, Scottish religious reformer (martyred) (b. 1513)
  • March 26 – Thomas Elyot, English diplomat and scholar (b. c. 1490)
  • April 7 – Friedrich Myconius, German Lutheran theologian (b. 1491)
  • May 17 – Philipp von Hutten, German knight (b. 1511)
  • May 29 – David Beaton, Scottish Catholic cardinal (b. c. 1494)
  • July 4 – Khair ad Din "Barbarossa", corsair ruler of Algiers (b. 1475)
  • July 9 – Robert Maxwell, 5th Lord Maxwell, Scottish statesman (b. c. 1493)
  • July 16 – Anne Askew, English Protestant (burned at the stake) (b. 1521)
  • August 1 – Peter Faber, French Jesuit theologian (b. 1506)
  • August 3 - Étienne Dolet, French scholar and printer (b. 1509)
  • August 3 - Antonio da Sangallo the Younger, Italian architect (b. 1484)
  • August 12 – Francisco de Vitoria, Renaissance theologian (b. 1492)
  • November 1 – Giulio Romano, Italian painter (b. 1499)


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Page last modified on January 16, 2018, at 12:13 PM