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1538CE

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§Caribbean Sea

§Dominican Republic

October 28 - The first University of the New World is founded the Universidad Santo Tomás de Aquino.

§Europe

§England

November 30 - Byland Abbey is dissolved.

Bisham Abbey dissolved.

§Greece

September 28 - The naval Battle of Preveza where the Turkish fleet of Suleiman the Magnificent under the command of Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha defeated the Holy League of Emperor Charles V under the command of Andrea Doria.

§Italy

Michelangelo starts work on the Piazza del Campidoglio (Capitoline Hill).

The volcano, Campi Flegrei, had an eight-day eruption depositing enough material to create a new hill, Monte Nuovo.

§Papal States

February - Pope Paul III succeeded in assembling a Holy League (composed of the Papacy, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire, the Republic of Venice and the Maltese Knights) against the Ottomans, but Barbarossa defeated its combined fleet, commanded by Andrea Doria, at the Battle of Preveza in September 1538. This victory secured Turkish dominance over the Mediterranean for the next 33 years

With Peter Faber, Diego Lainez, Francis Xavier and other less known early companions Ignatius Loyola (Jesuits) made his way from France to Rome in October 1538, to offer their priestly services to the pope. When it was clear that the missions given them by the Pope would lead to a break-up of the group of Friends in the Lord they decided to bind themselves spiritually together by obedience to a superior. They presented the project to the Pope. A congregation of cardinals reported favorably upon the constitution presented, and Paul III confirmed the order through the bull Regimini militantis (September 27, 1540), but limited the number of its members to sixty.

Michelangelo continued working on the Last Judgement.

§Romania

February 24 - Treaty of Nagyvárad: Peace between King Ferdinand and the Turks. John Zapolya is recognized as King of Hungary, while Ferdinand retains the northern and western parts of the Kingdom, and is recognized as heir to the throne.

§Switzerland

John Calvin was invited to lead a church of French refugees in Strasbourg by that city's leading reformers, Martin Bucer and Wolfgang Capito. Initially Calvin refused because William Farel was not included in the invitation, but relented when Bucer appealed to him. By September 1538 Calvin had taken up his new position in Strasbourg, fully expecting that this time it would be permanent; a few months later, he applied for and was granted citizenship of the city.

§North America

North and South America received its name once again when the cartographer, Gerard Mercator used the name America on both North and South continents.

§Mexico

The Viceroyalty of New Spain was established, encompassing all of Mexico and Central America, except Panama.

§South America

§Bolivia

November 30 - Sucre, Bolivia is founded under the name Ciudad de la Plata de la Nueva Toledo.

§Colombia

August 6 - Bogotá, Colombia is founded by Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada.

§Peru

April 26 - Battle of Las Salinas

After the final effort of the Inca to recover Cuzco had been defeated by Almagro, a dispute occurred between him and Pizarro respecting the limits of their jurisdiction. This led to confrontations between the Pizarro brothers and Almagro, who was eventually defeated during the Battle of Las Salinas (1538) and executed. Almagro's son, also named Diego and known as "El Mozo", was later stripped of his lands and left bankrupt by Pizarro.

§Sources

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Page last modified on December 22, 2016, at 12:18 AM