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<< 15 Kyr | 2 Ma-10000 BCE | 13 Kyr >>

§About this period

This period is nearing the end of the Pleistocene epoch.

§Epipaleolithic peoples

Evidence of the earliest semi-permanent villages.


Mammalian life included hedgehogs, moonrats, tenrecs, dasyurid marsupials, giant ground sloths, glyptodonts, bats, bear dogs, Bears, Cats such as cheetahs and sabre tooth tigers, dire wolves, mongoose, tTrue seals, otters, weasels, springbok, wildebeest, deer, elk, rabbits, kangaroos and wallabies, rhinoceros, chimpanzees, great apes, homo erectus, ring-tailed lemur, modern and early humans, neanderthals, mastodon, mammoths, elephants, orcas, dolphins, humpback whales.


Plants that grew in this period included the modern conifer, the rose family, beeches and oaks, grasses, lilies and orchids.


We are currently technically still in the last ice age. We experience it as a warm period because of the retreat of the ice sheets.

§Of World Interest

The first dogs descended from wolves about this time. Modern researchers believe that wolves scavenging near human waste dumps may have been killed when aggressive and tolerated when not aggressive, eventually evolving a less aggressive species more in tuned with humans.


§Southwest China

The partial skulls and other bone fragments, which are from at least four individuals and are between 14,300 and 11,500 years old, have an extraordinary mix of primitive and modern anatomical features that stunned the researchers who found them.

Named the Red Deer Cave people, after their apparent penchant for home-cooked venison, they are the most recent human remains found anywhere in the world that do not closely resemble modern humans.

The individuals differ from modern humans in their jutting jaws, large molar teeth, prominent brows, thick skulls, flat faces and broad noses. Their brains were of average size by Ice Age standards.

§North America

§North American Great Basin

The first scientific report of a megaflood (Gilbert, 1890) is that related to the overflow of Lake Bonneville about 14500 yr ago, a few millennia before the Holocene.


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Page last modified on September 13, 2016, at 09:58 PM